This is an ethnography of "mod" music producers online. The author argues that mod music producers are musicians and composers because"it involves a much closer contact with musical sound than conventional composition because every aspect of each sonic event must be coded: from pitch and duration to exact volume, panning, and the laying in of numerous effects (such as echo, tremolo, and fades)." These mod sites feature original compositions and remixes, and are locii of various communities and subcultures in which active participation is necessary to gain social status (so listening is as important as producing). The aesthetics are rigorous, "...based on a kind of geek adolescent techno-machismo—music coding is damn hard and not suited for the technologically handicapped."
Remixing and sampling are popularly practiced in Lysloff's community. "Ripping," or sampling bits from other tracks is more popular, and generally encouraged as a form of sharing and community engagement, becoming "public property." Giving credit is considered good practice, as some producers do consider sampling theft. Plagiarism, Lysloff acknowleges, has become an issue as the community has matured. The meanings of remixes is different: "remixing is considered a form of homage to a particularly outstanding piece of music or tribute to a renowned artist."