Wu, Tim. "Wireless Carterfone." International Journal of Communication. Vol. 1 (2007): 389-426.
Tim Wu's journal article proposes a new way of looking at the mobile phone and its connection to the internet. With respect to the current mobile phone industry, Wu sees four main areas that need attention: network attachments, product design and feature crippling, discriminatory broadband services and application stall. After issuing his complaints, Wu makes four recommendations for the mobile phone industry: the Wireless Carterfone, basic network neutrality rules, disclosure and standardized application platforms. The whole idea behind the Carterfone is that consumers have the right to attach whatever device they want to their phone lines and Wu calls for a similar service within the mobile phone industry. Overall, the author is frustrated by the power and control that carriers in the United States have over the network, equipment designs and application markets.
Many of Wu's complaints are not met by the iPhone and its applications. For example, the iPhone is not the Wireless Carterfone. Unlike its competitor, Android, the iPhone is tied to a specific network (AT&T). Wu also complains about the carriers' extensive power over equipment design and other application markets. Although Apple heavily controls what applications can be uploaded to their phones, they allow users to access to all kinds of applications not present on other cell phones. Additionally, their internet browsing is significantly more advanced than other devices'. Wu complains that other phones have terrible internet services and often do not allow you to stream movies or music; this is certainly not the case with the iPhone. The iPhone does follow most basic network neutrality rules with its inclusion of Safari and full internet browsing. While Apple does have the final say on all applications, third-party developers are able to create apps through the Apple Software Development Kit (SDK), which creates openness in application development that has never been present before. However, developers still have to put up with lengthy qualification and application procedures and are often not told why their app did not make it into the store. With the iPhone, Apple has surmounted some of the obstacles presented by Wu but it still has many more ahead. Nonetheless, it is very apparent that many of the claims issued in this article are gradually being addressed by the mobile phone industry.
Zittrain, Jonathan. "Law and Technology: The End of the Generative Internet." Communications of the ACM. Vol. 52.1 (2009) 18-20.
Zittrain offers a fascinating take on the generative nature of the Internet, which he believes is being destroyed by new developments in technology. Using the iPhone as a case study, the author declares that its generative content is minimal and full of restrictions. The article explains that the first iPhone left no place for innovation from outside developers. Furthermore, Apple turned the phone of any developer that had changed the code into an "iBrick". A sense of vindication is palpable in an addendum to the piece that praises the iPhone SDK and the apps created by outside developers. However, the author argues that Apple always holds all the power over the applications. From allowing developers to create in the first place to putting their apps in the store to making them featured apps to removing them all together, there can be no doubt that Apple exerts immense control over their platform. Nonetheless, Zittrain draws the conclusion that currently Apple's gate keeping tendencies are beneficial to the majority of users that want outside control.
This article seems a bit confused at times as it tries to reconcile Apple's overarching theme of control with its occasional message of openness. The apps created by third-party developers using the iPhone SDK connect to James Surowiecki's "The Wisdom of Crowds". The most successful and most downloaded apps are those created by Apple outsiders, which demonstrates the importance of collective intelligence. By opening up the app industry to anyone who is interested in participating, Apple was able to acquire an extremely diverse array of apps. However, in relation to "The Wireless Carterfone", there are still many qualifications and approval procedures that force developers to jump through multiple hoops before getting their app in the store. The entire idea of a generative internet relates to the reoccurring idea in technology literature of open content. Although outside developers can create iPhone apps, these apps are certainly not open content. Essentially, outside developers cannot come in and edit these pre-existing apps. While the Apple SDK is available, the ability to edit or build-on to apps is not. It's also interesting to examine this piece in relation to iPhone jailbreaking. Although jailbreaking has raised many questions regarding its legality, the action could be seen as an extension of the generative internet. Until a phone is jailbroken, a user does not truly have the opportunity to create generative content on their iPhone.
Nerger, Paul. "Breaking Free from 'Dot Com' Thinking in a Mobile World." International Journal of Mobile Marketing. Vol. 3.1 (2008) 19-22.
Nerger argues that mobile marketers are stuck in trying to convert methods of internet marketing for mobile phones. He labels this "dotcom thinking" and argues that the industry must strive instead for "dotmobi" thinking. In comparing the mobile phone to the PC, it's stated that the mobile phone is more personal and always with the owner. Additionally, the device possesses applications like SMS, MMS, GPS, a built-in camera and more. Nerger calls for marketers to understand these differences and apply them when reaching out to mobile phone owners. However, his argument shifts slightly when he addresses the iPhone because the device allows for the full display of dotcom websites. His explanation offers that just because you have the ability to access a full website on your phone doesn't mean that you should and that the iPhone's small screen doesn't offer the best viewing capabilities. Nonetheless, he acknowledges that the iPhone has transformed mobile web browsing through its network access, unlimited-data-plans, and ability to draw in consumers through mobile websites. The article concludes by offering that although the iPhone has changed the mobile web browsing landscape, the rules of dotmobi thinking still apply.
iPhone web design and marketing is something that hasn't been addressed much in current literature. It's negotiable whether Nerger is correct in his argument that the ability to access a full website on the iPhone is not necessarily a good thing. The fact that the iPhone offers users the opportunity to immediately access any information of the internet is without a doubt useful, even if it is not the best possible platform. The piece that discusses web apps offers that by accessing a site through its app, the visitor will be more inclined to visit its website on their PC later. This offers the possibility that iPhone apps can increase web-browsing customers or even simply raise awareness of a particular brand. The questions that are raised by the author regarding the differences between dotcom and dotmobi thinking can definitely be applied to the world of iPhone applications as well. Application developers must realize that the most successful applications are those that utilize the resources that the iPhone offers. They must understand that they are not creating an app for a PC but rather, a different, unique device. The Ocarina apllication created by Smule is great because it employs resources like the microphone and touch screen in a brand new way.
Cuneo, Alice. "Apple's iPhone." Advertising Age. Vol. 79.11 (2008) 56.
Cuneo's article compiles many persuasive statistics about iPhone user's internet behaviors, especially in comparison to other mobile phone users. Her sources show that iPhone users browse the internet six times as often as other mobile phone users and are the most frequent users of mobile search and mobile social networking sites. The article also discusses some of the iPhone's functions that lead to a presumably better marketing experience including a better operating system, screen size and resolution. The argument is made that all of these things allow advertisers to better appeal to potential clients in the mobile platform. The article concludes that the iPhone has been a game changer in the world of mobile marketing and references companies like 20th Century Fox and Land Rover that have already found it to be worthwhile.
The internet is very clearly based around advertising. The web offers users a multitude of free content but users constantly pay for it through embedded ads, banners, pop-ups, product placement, and ads within searches. The fact that so many iPhone users visit a plethora of different web through applications demonstrates the need for advertisers to use resources like video to reach out to them. Additionally, the systems like GPS within the iPhone allow marketers to eventually target very specific areas of the population. This will most likely make it even more valuable than standard internet advertising in the future. Something the article doesn't discuss is the prevalence of iPhone apps as tools for marketing and advertising. However, when this piece was written, it was not yet apparent how useful these tools would become. Through many of the thousands of free apps present in the app store, companies are doing their best to grab hold of consumers using this brand new method of communication.
Cahill, Alexandra. "Pocket Streams." Billboard. 28 March 2009: 7.
Cahill's article examines the role that iPhone apps are affecting the way that users listen to music. Her main point is that applications created for the iPhone as well as other mobile devices have expanded the reach of online radio. She refers to two music streaming websites, Pandora and Clear Channel, which both have applications available for download on an iPhone. The work often cites Pandora founder, Tim Westergren, who states that Pandora has added 20,000 listeners each day as a result of their app and that between 10% and 20% of its audience comes from an iPhone or iPod touch. While there's no way to measure the number of unique listeners yet, experts cite that it will only be a matter of time before third-party measurement services begin to track it. The overall conclusion is that the distribution of radio is constantly evolving due to new technology and the mobile phone industry is simply the next step in this progression.
The fact that people are experiencing these radio streaming services and other web-based content through devices like their iPhones reinforces the desire for a multi-modal technological experience. It reveals that if music-streaming sites want to be successful, they must find a way to incorporate all forms of developing technology into their brand. This theory can essentially be extended to all parts of the internet experience. If apps are the way of the future, all websites from social networking to blogs to stores should be working to create their own unique app. Additionally, Pandora is one of the clearest examples of Chris Anderson's long tail theory. The site streams music to you based on your previous preferences and as a result, a whole new library of music is opened up for you for the first time. Thus, the long tail theory can be extended not just to the experience browsing the internet from a PC but to the mobile world as well.
Wortham, Jenna. "Music Games for iPhone Give Artists New Spotlight." The New York Times. 22 Dec. 2008.
This article offers an in-depth look at a successful iPhone application and the effect that it has on users. Wortham describes an iPhone app start-up, Tapulous, which created Tap Tap Revenge, a guitar hero of sorts for the iPhone. In the game, players tap certain colors on the screen to "play" popular songs. By the end of 2008, it had amassed the most downloads of any free app (300 million) and was possessed by 32% of iPhone users. As a result, the creators have reached out to the niche market and created paid Tap Tap games of specific artists such as Nine Inch Nails and Dave Matthews Band. The author also discusses the creation and success of Tap Tap Thursdays, an event in which new or unknown music is released within the game. Players can click through to Apple in order to purchase the songs directly to their phone. An example is cited of the Katy Perry song "Hot N Cold" being downloaded 50,000 times after being featured on this day.
Tapulous reveals much about iPhone applications, especially with respect to Tap Tap Thursday. The underlying theme of Tap Tap Tuesday can be seen as an extension of Chris Anderson's theory of the long tail. Users become exposed to this music because it is embedded within the game and often, will not have listened to it before. By allowing users to click directly through to the iTunes music store, they reiterate the immediacy that the iPhone offers. This game was the most downloaded game from the App store and one would wonder why this is. Perhaps, the fact that this game is accessible to all ages leads it to have a mass appeal. Also, it's similarity to popular games like Dance Dance Revolution and Guitar Hero is striking, which reveals the use of already popular ideas in the creation iPhone apps. As an evolution of these games, Tap Tap Revenge provides artists with an internet age mobile stage. In the future, music apps for mobile phones might be the best way for artists to promote themselves. Similarly, an app created by The Presidents of the United States of America, a rock band, allowed their fans to stream their music and look up tour dates. Apps like these are yet another example of the way that the divisions between different media are gradually being erased.
"Next Generation Electioneering." Finweek. 29 January 2009: 13.
This article from Finweek examines how politicians are using Web 2.0 to their benefit during elections. One section focuses on how the Obama campaign utilized services such as Facebook and Twitter as well as the creation of an iPhone app to connect to voters. The author cites that Obama became the most followed person on Twitter during his campaign and connects this to the development of his iPhone app. This app allowed supporters as well as undecided voters to have instant access to campaign events, media, news updates and more, wherever they were. The campaign came up with ingenious ideas such as allowing users to go through their address book within the application in order to solicit votes. The piece praises Obama's campaign for tying all these uses of technology to the campaign website, barackobama.com. In emphasizing Obama's success during the campaign with technology, the author hypothesizes that during his presidency, Obama will continue to use these tools to connect to the public.
In our society, web-based communication is becoming increasingly important. Viewers and consumers have come to expect a multi-modal approach and an iphone application is an extension of this phenomenon. While there's no evidence that this iphone app had any effect on people voting for Obama, one can hypothesize that the Obama campaign's multi-modal use of technology may have had some impact. As a result, it becomes clear that iphone applications need to be examined for their possible effect on our culture and even our voting behaviors. This iphone app is also correlated to Cass Sunstein's idea of the Daily Me. By subscribing to this source, Obama supporters and undecided voters will receive only pro-Obama news and its constantly accessibility means that they're more likely to read it. Sunstein argues that citizens must be exposed to material that they had not chosen in advance to preserve a diversity of opinion. By pre-selecting these Obama news feeds, users fail to expose themselves to ideas that contrast their pre-existing beliefs.
Cauley, Leslie. "Skype's iPhone limits irk some consumer advocates." USA Today. 2 Apr. 2009.
Cauley describes the various negative responses from consumers regarding the release of the Skype application for iPhones. Customers were upset to find out that the service was only accessible in areas with WiFi and not on the cellular or 3G networks. It's apparent that representatives from AT&T and Apple feel that Skype, an application that allows users to make calls over the internet, is a threat to their success. The opposition argues that the FCC and Congress need to step up and declare the openness of wireless internet, similar to the regular internet. In the changing world of technology, even the FCC chairman seems to acknowledge that much of the wireless internet has slipped through the cracks unregulated. Skype demonstrates its frustration that the users of their app will lose their calls if they move outside of the wireless area and thus, do not receive the best network service.
This uprising regarding the Skype application reveals multiple things. In addition to expecting multi-modal content, users also expect their apps to provide them with constant connectivity. Thus, an app that does not offer this is viewed in a negative light. Relating back to the idea of the Wireless Carterfone, the iPhone crosses some boundaries but still falls short at times. By limiting users access to this Skype, these providers are failing to offer their customers the best possible service. This demonstrates that Apple and AT&T still have enormous power in deciding who comes out on top in iPhone apps. Nonetheless, the Skype app is quickly becoming one of the most downloaded apps of all time, which demonstrates a clear desire for it. In order to run Skype on an iPhone 3G, the phone must be jail broken. This relates back to the idea of the iPhone's walled garden and the questions regarding Apple and the DMCA. Users must unlock their phone to make the best use of this application but in doing so, they create a whole new set of problems. This conflict illustrates the clear necessity for clearer legislation, specifically related to network neutrality on iPhone applications. Apple argues that internet-based apps are not accessible without WiFi but internet browsing is always available on the cellular and 3G networks. This disparity displays that although Apple allows open internet access within Safari, there are still limits placed on internet using within applications. Additionally, these apps are most likely the ones like Skype that Apple and AT&T see as a threat to their business and brand.
Gershowitz, Adam. "The iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment." UCLA Law Review. Vol. 56 (2008) 27-58.
Gershowitz's article interprets the role that the iPhone plays in our understanding of the Fourth Amendment. This article from the UCLA Law School Journal emphasizes that under the current provisions of the Fourth Ammendment, a police officer can search the entire body and grabbing space of an arrestee without probable cause. In this past, this might have seemed trivial; however, the iPhone has made this a pressing issue because it allows the contents and applications to be searched. The first part of the article offers history and background related to this exemption from the Fourth Amendment. Next, the author reflects on previous cases that have dealt with searches of cell phones and how this doctrine is complicated by the iPhone. It becomes clear that applications such as the iPhoto one differentiate the iPhone from its predecessors. Finally, Gershowitz offers suggestions to courts and lawmakers for policies that they might adopt to secure greater protection for iPhones.
This article interestingly acknowledges a possible negative side effect of the iPhone's mobility and accessibility. One would be inclined to believe that having all of our resources and personal information just a click away at all times would be beneficial. However, as this article reveals, this is not necessarily always the case. Users must realize that having all of their personal information, e-mails, private data and more could possibly hurt them. The quick link to the internet via the wed applications could release incriminating information in some cases. For instance, an officer could search the web browser or photos of an iPhone user and find child pornography. This document is yet another reminder of the fact that the information stored within our technological devices is never truly private. Additionally, this text speaks to the fact that the law has not been able to keep up with developments in technology. With respect to privacy and copyright especially, technological developments like the iPhone are forcing lawmakers to reassess the application of policies to these devices.
Haubenrich, John. "The iPhone and the DMCA: Locking the Hands of Consumers." Vanderbilt Law Review. Vol. 61.5 (2008) 1507-1553.
Haubenrich delves into the role that the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) plays in the debate regarding the unlocking of iPhones and the resulting user experience. The article first provides a background into the DMCA regulations and the effect that it has on the wireless phone industry. It offers that, on one hand, iPhone users expect complete ownership of their devices as well as their choice of network. However, wireless providers and product designers like Apple want to protect their copyright and maintain their successful business in the wireless industry. The note comes out on the side of the consumer when it argues that the question of cell phone unlocking should not be addressed by copyright policy. In conclusion, the author calls upon Congress and scholars to examine telecommunication law to resolve the rights relating to locks on mobile phones. The argument is that without these barriers from wireless providers, there will be a better network, more innovation and more competition, which will benefit all mobile phone users.
The DMCA is one of the most important pieces of copyright legislation and its implementation plays an important role in technology policy. By acknowledging the iPhone locks are not an appropriate use of this policy, this legal expert urges consumers to have greater control over their wireless device. Many iPhone applications are accessible only through the unlocking or jailbreaking of one's iPhone. Because all apps need to be officially sanctioned by Apple to be in the app store, anything not sanctioned must be downloaded illegally. For instance, the iPhone has a camera but no available video camera app. By jailbreaking one's phone, a user can download this kind of app and proceed to use their phone for this new purpose. This note relates to Wu's idea of the Wireless Carterfone because the separation of the iPhone from the DMCA regulations parallels Wu's frustration with network attachments.