The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) serves the USA as the largest central resource for government-funded scientific, technical, engineering, and business related information available today. NTIS provides access to well over 3 million publications covering over 350 subject areas from 1964-present. This database makes it easy to locate important government information. It provides full descriptive summaries of titles NTIS has received from government agencies and worldwide government-sponsored research. The information it contains represent hundreds of billions of research dollars and covers a range of important topics including: agriculture, biotechnology, business, communication, energy, engineering, the environment, health and safety, medicine, research and development, science, space technology; and transportation.
Schiller, Dan. “Pushing informationalized capitalism into science and information technology.”
Dan Schiller, a professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign offers an alternative view to the previous mentioned authors about the state of current culture. He contends that it is not due to newly developing technologies that we are in age of informational capitalism. He credits the change on political and economic fronts. While this article does not so much touch on copyright per se, it is useful because it provides another perspective on the issue of culture and information. In addition he touches on intellectual property as well as copyright law in general stating that global policies while seemingly for free enterprise, growth, and creativity is rather all about profit. He seems to accredit persons (such as corporate leaders, government and communities) for developing a new market of information to adapt to the changing global market.
This article contributes precisely because it provides a counter argument in some ways thereby adding complexity to the topics being discussed.
tagged capitalism information technology by saddha ...on 09-DEC-08
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks REF HV8694 .P35 2001
"The primary purpose of this encyclopedia is to provide a comprehensive A to Z source of information on the legal, social and political history and present status of capital punishment in the nation" quoted from the preface on page 1 of the book. You will also find useful court cases, dates, graphs, and pictures on the death penalty in this book.
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks REF KF9227.C2 S772 2005
This book is good for law students or criminal justice professionals who are studing the death penalty. This book does not explain why the death penalty is not moral, wise, or effective. It is not to tell why such a horrible thing is justice either. It's simply to explain what the death penalty is and how it works. The author does this by laying out the whole process from the history and evolution to the clemency and execution.
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks REF K3240 .M365 2005
"In this book, while we touch on some of the questions just posed, our main focus is neither philosophical, nor procedural, and nor is it regimespecific." quote from the book's preface. Also in this book there are specifics articles on capital punishment.
This website is on about.com. It's by Kimberly and Albrecht Powell. It talks about capital punishment in the state of Pennsylvania. It gives historic facts about lynching (hanging), the electric chair, and lethal injection.
"The death of the Desktop"
by Michael V. Copeland
December 3, 2007
This blog entry raises a very important question that speaks to the heart of cloud computing. The paradigm in which we operate today feels as if most people have their digital identity primarily contained in a handful of websites. For people between the ages of 15-25, it is hard to argue that Facebook does not have some sort of a monopoly on the market for social content. For email, Gmail would like to make the same claim, but Hotmail and Yahoo Mail continue to serve as widely used and recognized platforms for web based email. Flickr (owned by Yahoo) is very popular for photographs, but many young people would probably say that they use Facebook for maintain their digital photography album's on the web.
This article sheds light on a new firm that is banking on the future of computer users shifting over to the cloud. The company is an online storage firm called BOX.NET, from Palo Alto, CA, and is two years old. Their main concept is a program they have created, OpenBox, which has an open platform. The idea is that the user can store all kinds of digital content online that can be accessed by other web-based applications, rather than having to upload content from your pc each time you want to add something to a particular web-based application.
This service hinges upon a critical assumption: that the web-based applications (ie. Facebook) that its clients (ie. the person who stores data on box.net) intent to feed with content from its website will actually adopt its open platform to allow for the users to access the box.net content. Considering this scenario raises an interesting question: Will the future of cloud computing become another platform for a struggle between internet companies to try to force its users to choose between one and other, rather than allowing the user to easily share and exchange content between web-based applications
Press the Enter or Return key and - presto! - you should see the following image:
Call#: Van Pelt Library HM851 .L56 2004
Call#: Van Pelt Library HM1041 .D37 2000
This chapter gives a history of the term 'meme' as it was coined by Richard Dawkins and Douglas Hofstadter's later book on the topic. The next part of the chapter talks about viral memes, which the author considers to be any meme designed to propogate itself. These memes "invoke an emotion and insist on being spread", such as chain emails. Those appealing to topics that provoke reaction, such as pity, fear, or sex, are considered to be the best examples of this. As for schemes, the author defines them as a set of related memes shared among different people. Schemes spread in a way similar to memes, but also through membership. In other words, if certain members of a scheme are considered to be good authorities or role models, other people, regardless of whether they accept the memes on their own, will become a part of the scheme.
The headings in this chapter look good, although the information (especially the example under viral memes) seems somehow off. As a brief history of the term 'meme' and an exploration of the schemes, this chapter is thought-provoking, but I'm hesitant to necessarily take the ideas he proposes as fact.
This article discusses how memes catch on (or don't) and their impact on culture. The first approach is looking at history as either a narrative or a science. The narrative must be plausible, but not predictable, to be interesting. So too is culture. The things that catch on don't follow a formula per se, but in retrospect they aren't completely out of the blue. The second approach is a comparison with evolution. In this view, it is the glitches that move things forward, not just the formula. The good will continue, the bad will be cast off. However, the line between good and bad is blurry at best, and the very nature of parasitic things like memes is to trick the hosts. The article gives the example of a person with a sweet tooth. If the candy tastes good enough to make the person forget about its negative impacts, it will persist, furthering both the good and the bad qualities of candy. Memes are selected unconsciously and consciously. Even in the case of meme-engineering, in which someone tries to create an idea that will catch on by mimicking what is popular, nothing can be predicted for certain. It doesn't necessarily matter how good an idea is (although it helps), but rather the unpredictable pull of many natural and cultural forces that decides the fate of a meme. Cultural evolution is thus not a direction, but a trend, and not necessarily a very definite trend.
The article touches on a lot of different possibilities, but its tone makes it easy enough to read and digest. The nature of taking the side of unpredictability is that no firm conclusions will be drawn, but the article still discusses numerous possibilities. The question Dennett repeats is "cui bono?" or "who benefits?" He doesn't give an answer, or perhaps the answer is that even if one could measure the benefits, they wouldn't necessarily inform anything beyond that.
This article analyzes how the internet works in terms of memetics. In this way of viewing things, each user and website is a different agent or node in the network: not aware of the underlying structure of the network, but instead only concerned with its immediate links within that network. Marshall takes a bottom-up approach and applies memetics to each level. At the operational level, the internet is a series of linked memes through which information and messages are routed through agents that have a specific purpose but do not know the intentions of the central controller. At the service level, agent are interfaces designed to achieve certain goals through interacting with other agents. In the example Marshall gives, a search engine for online stores has a goal of interfacing with other agents (the online stores) and processing the information. At the user level, the internet memeplex is able to transmit information quickly and ignore real-world boundaries. Thus users are able to indicate what information they want to receive, and then get it through the network. Marshall concludes that the memetic support system embedded in the internet make it more efficient and allows each additional layer to perform more useful and complex operations efficiently.
Although the aim of this paper is sound, the connection between each level is not discussed in any amount of detail. The clearest points are the discussion on virtual communities and general overview of how the internet can operate as a series of memeplexes.
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Call#: GA108.7 .C53 1992
tagged bibliographical bibliography books cartography citations database ethics geographic grammar guides information library management organization papers plagiarism references research scholarly software spatial statistics tools writing by nmperez ...on 27-OCT-06