H.R. 2267: Internet Gambling Regulation, Consumer Protection, and Enforcement Act, 2009. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_bills&docid=f:h2267ih.txt.pdf
In May 2009, Rep. Barney Frank (D-Mass) resurrected a bill similar to one he was unable to pass in the previous congress. HR 2267, or the Internet Gambling Regulation Consumer Protection and Enforcement Act, “would establish a federal regulatory and enforcement framework under which Internet gambling operators could obtain licenses authorizing them to accept bets and wagers from individuals in the United States.” Currently slated for the September session, many poker players are betting that this bill will finally legalize their Internet gambling. One of the other two bills that join HR2267 is HR2266 (Internet Gambling Regulation and Tax Enforcement Act) with the purpose of framing the regulation and taxation of this new enterprise; namely, “a 2 percent fee (i.e. federal tax) on all deposits.” The third counterpart, the Reasonable Prudence in Regulation Act, is the last ditch effort to stall the UIGEA, which calls for a one-year delay in date for compliance.
In Frank’s own words, “The government should not interfere with people's liberty unless there is a good reason. This is, I believe, the single biggest example of an intrusion into the principle that people should be free to do things on the Internet. It's clearly the case that gambling is an activity that can be done offline but not online.” Most advocates point to the revenue stream this bill would create, while opponents argue “legalized online gambling is a ‘clear danger to our youth’ and encourages gambling addiction at a young age.” However, Frank’s response to this claim is “The notion that a society should prohibit something entirely because of the possibility that children will abuse it is a terrible blow to liberty.” The authors have stressed that the bill includes safeguards to prevent underage or compulsive gambling and protect consumers who gamble online.
Until the bill comes to session, lobbying efforts have been promised by the Poker Players Alliance that include a $3 million campaign. HR2267 moves contrary to the traditional prohibitive stance the government has taken to online gambling. In an economic downturn, it’s no surprise that novel revenue streams become more appealing, which makes passing the Internet Gambling Regulation Consumer Protection and Enforcement Act a no-brainer. According to Harrah's Entertainment's senior vice president of communications and government relations Jan Jones, "We really believe this industry already exists. It just exists in a wild west setting. If you say you care about protecting children and fraud and money laundering, then the only way you can put those protections in place is to put in a strong regulatory frame."
European Commission, Directorate-General for Trade, "Report to the Trade Barriers Regulation Committee," Brussels, 6-10-2009. http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/june/tradoc_143405.pdf
The 2006 UIGEA not only scared American companies from facilitating gambling online by US citizens, but it also sent international shockwaves in the gambling industry. Specifically, European companies were forced out of the US market but “still suffer legal proceedings by US authorities based on their past activities on the US market.”
The report published June 10, 2009 by the European Commission is the result of a formal examination procedure filed in 2008 following the complaint lodged by the Remote Gambling Association. The report “concludes that US laws deny access and discriminate against foreign suppliers of gambling and betting services inconsistently with US WTO obligations.” In response, the US is trying to withdraw from the trade obligations, but has been unable to formally do so. However, as the report notes, “a withdrawal only affects future access to the market, but does not allow the US to disregard its obligations in respect of past activities.” These past activities affect “revenue and stock market value lost by affected companies.” One of the fundamental reasons why this dispute is taking place, is indeed the fault of the US government for not clearly defining their laws, namely in the ambiguous Wire Act. As outlined by the Commission, “EU companies thought that it was legally possible to supply Internet gambling services in the US, given the lack of clarity of the domestic legal framework.” As a result, even though the European companies began withdrawing in 2006 as a response to UIGEA, the US pursued these companies for their pre-2006 activities in a discriminatory fashion.
“Internet gambling is a complex and delicate area, and we do not want to dictate how the US should regulate its market,” said EU Trade Commissioner Catherine Ashton. “However, the US must respect its WTO obligations. I hope that we will be able to reach an amicable solution to this issue.”
Haley Hintze, "Payment Processor Files Against U.S. for Return of Seized Online Poker Funds" PokerNews.com, 7-13-09. http://www.pokernews.com/news/2009/07/payment-processor-files-return-seized-online-poker-funds-6939.htm
On June 10, 2009, authorities from the U.S. Department of Justice’s Southern District of New York froze more than $30 million in the accounts of payment processors that handle the winnings of thousands of online poker players. This unprecedented action marked the first attempt by DoJ to enact the 2006 UIGEA. According to the news reporting that day, “In a letter dated Friday and faxed to Alliance Bank, the prosecutor said accounts held by payment processor Allied Systems Inc. are subject to seizure and forfeiture ‘because they constitute property involved in money laundering transactions and illegal gambling offenses.’” Although the money belonged to individual players, poker sites decided to step in and cover all the losses suffered by the payment processing companies in order to ensure a smooth experience by their clients, i.e. the players. These poker sites were going out on a limb to keep credibility established in their business but eventually someone was going to have to reimburse them, right?
One month after the seizure, some payment processors filed a suit against the DoJ that claimed the legal action was unwarranted. One company is asking a federal judge “to order the return of approximately $14 million it believes was improperly seized by authorities.” Interestingly, “The majority of the funds seized belonged to individual poker players themselves, who could not, according the statute involved, have violated the law.” They also declare that online poker is not illegal gambling, as outlined in their 40-page motion that argues “why poker should be treated legally as a game of skill.”
This trial is currently under way.
Public Law 109 - 347 - Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 or the SAFE Port Act: H.R. 4954 (S. 2008) (S. 2459) http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:h4954enr.txt.pdf
Although the SAFE Port Act was mainly an anti-terrorism bill, the Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA) was tacked on at the last moment. The entire package was passed at midnight on the day Congress adjourned for the 2006 elections. Very few of the representatives had a chance to review the full bill and the UIGEA portion was not even included in the original SAFE Port Act passed by the Senate. The UIGEA was indeed a resurrection of the HR4411 IGPEA that failed in 1999 but several portions had been scrapped, namely any text relating to the Wire Act. Even though the UIGEA was signed into law in 2006, its provisions were marked for “notice of proposed rulemaking” that delayed any real legitimacy to the act until final regulations were released November 12, 2008 to become effective January 19, 2009. Additionally, due to the complicated enforcement issue the UIGEA placed on payment processors, compliance was not required until December 1, 2009. So even though the Bush administration had successfully passed an anti-gambling via the Internet bill, it took over three years to become effective, under a new administration that could possibly overturn the law.
While this bill does not expand the Wire Act provisions, it does add language to cover “interactive computer services” which obviously refers to the Internet. The real problem with the UIGEA is that it declares “unlawful Internet gambling” is illegal, but never defines Internet gambling. In an attempt to target poker and casino-style games specifically, the language expands on what is considered a bet or wager to include “games subject to chance.” However, poker enthusiasts and advocates claim that poker is a game of skill and not chance.
UIGEA does affirm that one should ignore intermediary computers and look to the place where the bet is made or received. However, the main purpose of the bill is to force the financial institution to become watchdogs over transactions. This reason alone is why banks heavily lobbied against the bill. While the long-term consequences are yet to be seen, the immediate effects resulted in Neteller and several other prominent payment processors to unilaterally stop serving the gambling community. Of course, other processors gladly stepped up in this vacuum alongside poker sites utilizing workarounds through phone cards and other innovative approaches.
In re MasterCard Int'l, et al., 132 F. Supp. 2d 468, 472 (E.D. La. 2001). http://www.ca5.uscourts.gov:8081/isysquery/irlc1e/1/doc
This 2001 class action case targeted several banks and credit card companies (such as Mastercard and Visa International) for alleged unlawful interaction with Internet casinos per the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). However, the defendants were able to successfully move to dismiss the case. During the appeal hearing in 2002, the judge affirmed the previous decision.
In short: “In this lawsuit, Larry Thompson and Lawrence Bradley (“Thompson,” “Bradley,” or collectively “Plaintiffs”) attempt to use the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (“RICO”), 18 U.S.C. §§ 1961-1968, to avoid debts they incurred when they used their credit cards to purchase “chips” with which they gambled at on-line casinos and to recover for injuries they allegedly sustained by reason of the RICO violations of MasterCard International, Visa International, and banks that issue MasterCard and Visa credit cards (collectively “Defendants”). The district court granted the Defendants’ motions to dismiss pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. We AFFIRM”
The judge wrote the following in his decision, “Because the Wire Act does not prohibit non-sports internet gambling, any debts incurred in connection with such gambling are not illegal.” Trumpeted by poker players unanimously, this case law set a precedent that although sports betting conducted over the Internet may be illegal, casino games are legal according to the Wire Act. The judge’s opinion was indeed influenced by previous attempts to expand the ambiguous Wire Act, as seen by his comments, “[T]he recent legislative history of internet gambling legislation reinforces the Court's determination that internet gambling on a game of chance is not prohibited conduct under 18 U.S.C. § 1084. Recent legislative attempts have sought to amend the Wire Act to encompass ‘contest[s] of chance…’ the ‘Internet Gambling Prohibition Act of 1999’ …sought to amend Title 18 to prohibit the use of the internet to place a bet or wager upon a ‘contest of others, a sporting event, or a game of chance…’”
Susan Schmidt; James V. Grimaldi (October 16 2005). "How a Lobbyist Stacked the Deck—Abramoff Used DeLay Aide, Attacks On Allies to Defeat Anti-Gambling Bill". Washington Post. p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/15/AR2005101501539_3.html.
Although this Washington Post article was written in 2005, the subject of the story centers on the 1999 Internet Gambling Prohibition Act (IGPA) that never came to be. IGPA was bill that cleared the Senate and "appeared on its way to passage by an overwhelming margin in the House of Representatives." Although a strong lobbying effort from the moral right and anti-gambling groups such as the Christian conservatives thought they had sealed the passage of this bill, political payoffs behind the scene derailed the process.
Even though the National Gambling Impact Study Commission’s Final Report gave fresh life to an anti-gambling bill, powerful lobbying efforts orchestrated by Jack Abramoff eventually scuttled the passage. These efforts employed a “win-at-any-cost strategy that went so far as to launch direct-mail attacks on vulnerable House conservatives” and included at one point, “circulat[ing] a forged letter of support from Florida Gov. Jeb Bush.” After the $2 million pro-gambling campaign defeated the bill, several charities tied to Abramoff and his accomplices helped launder the money.
This story serves as an example of how powerful lobbyists and corruption is capable of manipulating Capitol Hill and eventually national law. Although for the average gambler, they were never the wiser. Conservatives swore that they would one day resurrect the bill and that day eventually came also surrounded in controversy. [See UIGEA 2006]
Call#: Van Pelt Library KF3992 .N375 1999
In 1996 the National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act was signed into law which established the National Gambling Impact Study Commission, “charged by Congress with a ‘very broad and very difficult task – to conduct a comprehensive legal and factual study of the social and economic implications of gambling in the United States.’” The Commission efforts included “holding a series of hearings around the country…received testimony from hundreds of experts…making several site visits, commissioning original research, conducting surveys of the existing, wide-ranging literature, and soliciting and receiving input from a broad array of individuals and organizations.” This process took two years, and the final report was published in 1999. During the report’s introduction, the Commission addresses Internet gambling specifically, “Thus, with only a few exceptions in areas such as the Internet, we agree that gambling is not a subject to be settled at the national level, but is more appropriately addressed at the state, tribal and local levels.”
It seems that the authors’ limited understanding of cyberspace permitted them to treat the Internet as a unified jurisdiction capable to being encompassed by a national law, since any state would be hard pressed to enforce a law governing the de-centralized Internet’s transmissions across state lines. They did include a specific section devoted to Internet gambling in which they came to no clear conclusion, but rather harped on the uncertainty that the technology has brought to the legal field. Mainly they assert that the most likely law to invoke is the Wire Act, but simultaneously admit that “wire communications” may not apply to the World Wide Web that can employ satellite technology and other wireless technology. They also raise the issue that the statute does not clearly define gambling “contests” and if it should apply to nonsports betting such as Internet bingo, lotteries, or casino-style games. More poignantly, the Commission asks relevant but unanswered questions such as “What are the legal jurisdictions when it comes to Internet gambling? Where are the bets and wagers actually taking place?” Such questions were already covered for brick-and-morter establishments and accompanying telephone communications as a result of the RICO laws and the like.
In conclusion, the Commission made four recommendations regarding Internet gambling: 1) the federal government should prohibit…Internet gambling not already authorized, 2) prohibit wire transfers to known Internet gambling sites or the banks who represent them, 3) prohibit states from permitting the expansion of gambling into homes…, 4) the federal government should take steps to encourage foreign government not to harbor Internet gambling organizations that prey on US citizens.
While the report focused on addressing both the social and economic situation regarding gambling, the only technological solutions in regards to Internet gambling they came up with were recommending enforcement strategies that targeted ISPs, credit card providers, money transfer agencies, and makers of wireless communication systems. In order to police the nebulous Internet, they planned on holding the financial facilitators responsible.
Sporting Events – Transmission of Bets, Wagers, and Related Information Act,Pub. L. No. 87-216, § 2, 75 Stat. 491, 552-553 (1961) http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/18C50.txt
Adopted in 1961, the intent of this law was to help law enforcement agencies, especially at the state level, fight organized crime. The Federal Wire Act, in companionship with other federal bookmaking statutes – Travel Act, Interstate Transportation of Wagering Paraphernalia Act, and the Illegal Gambling Business Act – established how organized gambling activities would be deemed illegal and punishable.
Subsection (a) of the Wire Act, a criminal provision, provides:
Whoever being engaged in the business of betting or wagering knowingly uses a wire communication facility for the transmission in interstate or foreign commerce of bets or wagers or information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers on any sporting event or contest, or for the transmission of a wire communication which entitles the recipient to receive money or credit as a result of bets or wagers, or for information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than two years, or both [18 U.S.C. § 1084(a).]
Two provisions standout from the above clause. Namely, “engaged in the business of betting or wagering” and “wire communication facility.” The first quote is most often interpreted to exclude casual bettors. It has been argued, even by congressmen during the debate on this bill, that “[t]his bill only gets after the bookmaker, the gambler who makes it his business to take bets or to lay off bets. . . It does not go after the causal gambler who bets $2 on a race. That type of transaction is not within the purvue of the statute” [United States v. Baborian, 528 F. Supp. 324, 328 (D.R.I. 1981) (quoting 107 Cong.Rec. 16,534 (1961)).]
Regarding the definition of a “wire communication facility,” the following wording applies, “[A]ny and all instrumentalities, personnel, and services (among other things, the receipt, forwarding, or delivery of communications) used or useful in the transmission of writings, signs, pictures, and sounds of all kinds by aid of wire, cable, or other like connection between the points of origin and reception of such transmission.” It remains unclear if the Internet falls in this category. It may be true that certain cables and wires facilitate the Internet, but information also can be transmitted wirelessly between destinations. Wireless transmissions would fall outside the scope of a “wire communication facility.” Since the authoring of this bill preceded the Internet, no consensus has been made on whether it should be applied to online gambling.
One thing is for sure, the Wire Act clearly separates sports betting from nonsports betting, and has been used to define the legality of nonsports betting online. That is to say, the Wire Act fails to prohibit using the Internet to bet on games of chance, such as poker.
Call#: Fine Arts Library Reference NA6830 .G578 1994
Call#: Van Pelt Library Rosengarten Reserve F158.3 .P5664 1982
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Desk F158.18 .I58 1995
Call#: Van Pelt Library HQ503 .S56 2003
Searchable archive of public opinion questions on health issues, including abortion, alcohol an drugs, bioterrorism and biological weapons, political campaigns, elections, leaders and health, children and youth, death, disabled persons and disabilities, diseases, environmental health, genetics, the health care industry and health care priorities, HIV and AIDS, HMOs and managed care, Medicaid and Medicare, medical research, mental health, nutrition and exercise, patients' rights, prescription drugs, race and ethnicity and health, seniors, sexual health, sexuality and reproductive health, smoking, sources of health information, uninsured persons and health insurance, violence, women's health.
Series, Survey of Business Owners, and include totals for all U.S. businesses based on the 2002
Economic Census and estimates of business ownership by gender, Hispanic or Latino origin, and
race based on the 2002 SBO. Estimates for equally male-/female-owned firms and publicly held
companies and other businesses whose ownership cannot be classified by gender, Hispanic or
Latino origin, and race are tabulated and published separately.
Call#: HA730.P45 B56 1982
Call#: HD7293 .A4883
v. 2. Nonfarm housing characteristics. pt. 1. United States and divisions. pt. 2. Akron-Des Moines. pt. 3. Detroit-Memphis. pt. 4. Miami-Salt Lake City. pt. 5 San Antonio-Youngstown.
v. 3. Farm housing characteristics. United States and economic subregions.
v. 4. Residential financing. Mortgaged nonfarm properties. pt. 1. United States. pt. 2. Large standard metropolitan areas.
v. 5. Block statistics (comprising Series H-E bulletins) 213 parts.
Call#: HD7293 .A4883
Call#: Van Pelt Library 317.3 Un35 1950.2
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks HD7293 .A486 1942
Call#: Van Pelt Library Folio HD7293 .A5 1940m
tagged Asia Asian_Production_Networks Berkeley_Round_Table_on_the_International_Economy Cross-National_Production_Networks Electronics High_Tech_Industry High_Technology_Industry International_Production_Networks US USA United_States business_area_studies by croninkc ...on 19-APR-06
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA646.3 .S794 1987
Call#: Van Pelt Library JX1974.7 .S417 1987
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA646.3 .S38 1983
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA23 .M67
Call#: Van Pelt Library D845 .K5
Call#: Van Pelt Library HD9698.G42 K44
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA646.3 .D33 1991
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA646.3 .B767 1983
Call#: Van Pelt Library UA23 .B786 1988
Call#: Van Pelt Library U162.6 .B66 1988
Call#: Van Pelt Library JX1974.7 .B3
Call#: Van Pelt Library E183.8.S65 L343 2002
Walter LaFeber provides a general survey of the Cold War in the ninth edition of his America, Russia and the Cold War, 1945-2002. Traditionally painted as a member of the “new left” school of historiography, LaFeber’s interpretation of the Cold War provides a more detailed focus on economics and social issues than would be found in comparable surveys. The first chapters of the book, describing the origins of the Cold War, make this clear. Still a controversial subject to many historians, LaFeber takes the view that the Cold War was largely a product of an American desire to make sure that the post-war market place would be open to the capitalist system.
Chapter eleven is particularly relevant for its discussion of the period of détente (1966-1976). LaFeber describes détente as a reworking of traditional American containment policy. He is particularly adept at describing the explosive social forces unleashed by growing anxiety over American economic standing and continued involvement in the Vietnam War. President Nixon’s expansion of the conflict—increased bombing of North Vietnam and an invasion of Cambodia—provoked a particularly intense reaction culminating in the death of four students at Kent State in May 1970. The difficult task of governing the United States during this tumultuous period was made worse by President Nixon’s paranoid and imperious leadership style. He sought to prevent information from leaking to the media and sought to single-handedly control American foreign policy.
LaFeber’s text describes the larger historical context necessary to fully appreciate and understand THX 1138. The film exhibits an acute, if implicit, uneasiness with contemporary political developments. In fact, several lines of dialogue in the movie are taken straight out of speeches given by President Nixon. If films provide a rough window into the collective mindset of the periods in which they are created, this book helps the researcher understand how that mindset was created and why.
Call#: Van Pelt Library PN1995.9.S26 S57 1997
Vivian Sobchak’s Screening Space: The American Science Fiction Film seeks to fill a “small part of that vast black hole in space which metaphorically represents the lack of aesthetic criticism available to serious film scholars (and fans) of the genre” (11-12). The study is limited in several, very helpful ways. First, Sobchak concentrates solely on American science fiction film. This allows for a more detailed description of the various films. It also allows her to make broad arguments about the unique nature of American science fiction film. The author also confines herself to science fiction films made after 1950. Finally, this book deals primarily with the aesthetic qualities of science fiction film. Thus, the chapters are organized thematically. Chapter one focuses on definitions of science fiction, problems with the concept of genre and a comparison of science fiction literature and film; chapter two with the visual qualities of science fiction film; chapter three with the auditory qualities of film; chapter four with the concept of postfuturism and its relevance to science fiction.
Chapter three contains a very interesting discussion on the role of dialogue in science fiction films. More specifically, Sobchak argues that, oftentimes science fiction films will feature radio broadcasts, public speeches or television news presentations as an integral part of the film world. This dialogue serves to draw the viewer into the film. No matter how exotic or futuristic the world depicted in the film might be, the viewer is comforted by the “ritual” of traditional news dialogue. In the case of THX 1138 Sobchak insightfully calls attention to the film’s separation of television and public voices, even though they are linked by implication. Thus, characters in the film will communicate through intercoms—they are completely dependent upon the media for their interpretations and experiences of other people. “In this film, speeches and rhetoric unattached to human bodies fill the sound track, seem to emanate from corridots, phone booths, confessionals, and black walls” (196). The rest of the chapter is also helpful, illuminating the way in which science fiction transforms spoken language ( for example, the use of “nadsat” in A Clockwork Orange), the concept of the “word as image,” and the importance of non-verbal sound.
Call#: Van Pelt Library PS374.S35 H37 2005
Darren’s focused study of literary science fiction in the period between 1970 and 2000 provides a detailed description of developments in science fiction during the decade in which THX 1138 was produced. Though this work is concerned solely with literature, it nevertheless provides important contextual background enabling a fuller appreciation of THX 1138 and its place within a larger science fiction genre consisting of both literature and film. Darren makes important arguments in his introduction about why science fiction should be taken seriously. He argues, convincingly, that science fiction is unfairly judged according to its worst examples. The genre has also been placed at a disadvantage vis-à-vis other literary genre because of its roots in pop culture: originally appearing in pulp magazines, works of science fiction have been permanently tarred with a reputation for being sub-literary (an opinion only reinforced by the fact that new works of science fiction are often released only in paperback for a wide audience). Darren also argues that the popularity of science fiction and its consequent proliferation in other media—film, video games, and television—has further distorted the genre and again opened it up to criticism.
The main argument of the study is that science fiction “matured” between 1970 and 2000 to include many works of substantial literary merit (merit that has been unrecognized by most critical scholars). At the same time, the period saw an expansion of the science fiction canon with growth in the number of women and black writers; traditionally marginalized groups. Darren argues in his conclusion that science fiction has not been accorded the respect it deserves among academics. He points to the glaring omission of science fiction writing in the major anthologies of American literature. Science Fiction, Darren argues, has made valuable contributions to American literature, presenting its readers with innovative ideas and concepts, insightful criticisms of contemporary culture and memorable characters.
Call#: Van Pelt Library PS374.S35 S44 1999
David Seed’s American Science Fiction and the Cold War reviews the major cinematic and literary works of science fiction from the end of the 1940s to the late 1980s. The book begins with a particularly captivating introduction focusing on the work of French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Seed first brings attention to a school of post-structural analysis called “Nuclear Criticism.” Members of this school, including Derrida, argued that nuclear conflict can only be a signified referent of a discourse or text because the real referent has never occurred. Using this as a foundation, Seed makes the argument that the status of science fiction literature is raised—“if nuclear war can only be approached speculatively then [the literature] can occupy a space equal to sociological, strategic and other modes of speculation” (4). This adds a layer of depth to any study of Cold War science fiction film and makes it easy to argue why that study is relevant.
The introduction also provides a useful description of the way in which science fiction literature during the Cold War was used as a vehicle for social criticism. Literature and film of the time often insightfully illustrated the power of secrecy and its use as a mechanism of social control. Chapter 5, focusing on “Cultures of surveillance” elaborates on this theme. A thorough discussion of iconic science fiction dystopias—1984, Brave New World, and Player Piano—provides examples of Cold War writers criticizing the development of the national security state during the conflict. Once again, Seed helpfully sketches out links between this literature and contemporary philosophical developments. In this case, Seed points out that these “cultures of surveillance” are akin to the “panopticism” elucidated in Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish. Chapter 10 provides a further extension by looking at how this surveillance gave rise to the “conspiracy narrative.” The chapter looks at the work of Philip K. Dick in detail. While THX 1138 goes unmentioned, the larger arguments of Seed’s work are certainly relevant to a study that seeks to position Lucas’s film in the dystopian tradition.
Recent research results through abstracts and fulltext working papers and journal articles in economics, finance, law (especially business and economic aspects), accounting, and Latin American economics and business.
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From the Heritage Foundation, this site provides great access to leading thinkers and Think Tanks along the conservative side of all issues.
From their website:
"Policy Experts is your single-source directory for locating knowledgeable authorities and leading policy institutes actively involved in a broad range of public policy issues, both domestic and foreign. Journalists, researchers, public officials and conference planners find it to be an indispensable guide for locating the right expert at a moment's notice."
Call#: Van Pelt Library E185.8 .S53 2004
Call#: Van Pelt Library E185.8 .C77 1999