Author Matt Ridley explores the evolution of our emotions in his chapter Theories of Moral Sentiments. We learn how reciprocal altruism could have evolved in a species such as our own. He would call Alex a short sighted fool who does not consider the long term when making decisions. This relates to A Clockwork Orange in that Alex does indeed receive reciprocity, albeit negative, for his actions once he gets out of jail. The author argues that altruism evolved only to benefit the individual through establishing trust with others. Indeed, when Alex fails to treat his droogs altruistically he loses their trust, leading to his demise. Ridley argues that morality is an innate capacity for guilt and empathy but does not always develop in a person due to environmental factors. Clearly, Alex, and hardly any other character, does not possess these emotions due to the mechanized society he developed in. Kubrick depicts a future so daunting that it can wipe the humanity right out of us. Psychopaths, like Alex, are becoming commonplace. Ridley argues that altruism is ultimately selfish, citing different activities that most people do with the expectation of recognition and reward. He points out that Christians are taught to be good in order to get into heaven. Post-treatment Alex, a “true Christian”, could be argues to be better than a regular Christian. If he were free to be good, he would be ultimately doing so out of selfishness: to get into heaven. This is an interesting twist on the argument of removing humanity through mechanizing people. Humanity is selfish; automatons are not. Also, prior to treatment, Alex was not altruistic, and therefore not ultimately selfish in his actions.