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Call#: Van Pelt Library ML3790 .B39 2007
In this article the European Economic Community council of ministers gives support for audio visual anti-piracy measures. In certain countries such as Germany, France, and the United Kingdom piracy is on the decline because of the strict penalties that have been adopted but piracy from outside countries continues to be a problem. One of these problems is the illegal copying of compact disks using technology known as DAT or Digital Audio Tape machines. Japanese manufacturers began to launch these machines all across Europe. According to the International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram producers (IFPI) a problem with expired copyright works in Denmark could cause pirating problems for other EEC countries.
According to the article many countries began to propose legislation to combat the piracy. The Dutch for instance introduced a levy on the sale of blank video and audio tapes. The Cultural Commisioner gave proposals for anti-piracy penalties. Other proposals included ways to find and get rid of pirate material, a framework of cooperation between the copyright holders and authorities, and a computerised register of audio visual work. In the UK the illicit sale of cassette tapes has declined due to a rapid decrease in prices. Other countries have implemented prison sentences for up to two years.
The major problem with the music industry is the use of DAT machines because of their ability to make perfect copies of compact disks in a short amount of time. The music industry wants all imported machines to have an anti-copying device, but the commission does not necessarily agree with the proposal. The commission does not want to put something into place that will ban legitimate copying.
In Denmark a record company known as All Round Trading are exporting unauthorized cds because of the expired copyright problem mentioned earlier in the article. Certain disks in Denmark were only covered under copyright for 25 years and are now unprotected, but in other countries the disks are still under copyright law. The record company argues that since the disks are on sale in one EEC country they can freely be exported to other EEC states under the Treaty of Rome which allows for the free movement of goods. The Commission believes that the action is clearly illegal whereas the IFPI believes that the case may need to go to court in order to be clarified.
This article makes reference to early music piracy and strategies that were implemented in different countries to help combat the problem.
from Martin Dahren
date Mon, Jul 7, 2008 at 8:27 AM
subject Re: Query: Origin of Armenian surnames
Try the article "Das Armenische Personennamensystem" in "Europäische Personennamensysteme: Ein Handbuch von Abasisch bis Zentralladinisch", ed. by A. & S. Brendler (Hamburg 2007), pp. 57-66. It includes on p. 64-65 a topical bibliography that lists all serious publications on the subjects incl. etymological dictionaries of Armenian surnames.
I have no access to the book at the moment, so I cannot give you any more details. I analyzed the book recently. It is a real treasure systematically dealing with the personal names of 77 languages in today's Europe.
Call#: Van Pelt Library JN94.A95 H69 1998
The principal aim of the project is to explain the role of electoral systems in the process of democratisation in post-communist Europe. The investigation will focus on twelve core countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine), but where available we have provided data for other post-communist states.
This website is part of the dissemination strategy of the project. It includes and on-line database of election results and electorally-relevant laws from throughout Eastern Europe. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems and the Association of Central and East European Election Officials contributed to the construction of the database.
The Election Law section of the database includes election laws (parliamentary and presidential election laws, country-wide regional election laws, universal electoral codes, and laws on basic guarantees) and other legislation relevant to elections (constitutional provisions, political party laws, campaign finance laws, media laws, and other relevant legislation).
Laws from 12 countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine) can be searched by country, election year and by twelve topic areas.
The Election Results section of the database includes results for parliamentary and presidential elections dating back to 1990 in each of the 12 countries, plus other information such as number of registered voters, turnout, votes cast, and total valid votes. Constituency level results of parliamentary elections from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine are also available.
Candidate data (downloadable SPSS and Excel files) and lists of relevant internet links supplement the database.
The book also has relevance to the film in its analysis of the immutability of the bureaucratic system, Jacoby writes, “the attempt on the part of democratic movements to break out of this bureaucratic closed sphere always ends by leading back into it;” evidence of this comes from both the women who are unable to make any progress in fixing the cesspool in their neighborhood and Kimura, who rises in an attempt to follow Watanabe’s example, but ends up right back at his desk where he started.
A possible explanation for the two-part structure of the films if that, as a bureaucratic, “the individual must […] undertake an essential schism within himself.” Jacoby is saying that the bureaucrat must make a distinction between the ‘bureaucratic’ self and the ‘social’ self, which is what Watanabe has been unable to do. The two selves are one and the same in Watanabe, and when he separates the two, by deciding to do something about the cesspool (which is in contrast to what his ‘bureaucratic’ self would do), the film separates in two. Now this might be inferring too much, but the text does offer many insights into the film that none of the other authors have made. While the book deals neither with cinema nor Ikiru, it provides an understanding of the process of bureaucratization and the bureaucratic system that allows for applications to the film. By applying these concepts and theories to the film, one comes away with a unique understanding of the film.