Saint-Amour, Paul K. The Copywrights: Intellectual Property and the Literary Imagination. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2003.
Paul Saint-Amour's study is primarily concerned with British copyright discourse from the late Victorian period through the beginning of modernism. His eponymous pun seeks to capture the extralegal dimension of copyright law - namely, the interests and prejudices of those who set and implement the law, for instance, in favor of certain forms of creativity at the expense of others. The goal of the book is to argue that literature began thinking about copyright when terms began extending in the nineteenth century, and that for the sake of future literature, copyright protection must be significantly "thinned." Originality, Saint-Amour argues, is "only ever meaningfully a dialogical cultural phenomenon - a complexly intersubjective, intertextual product of social processes of consensus, contestation, distortion, and occlusion." The chapter pertinent to my study involves what Saint-Amour calls the "hauntology" of copyright, the process by which an author "lives" beyond death in the form of a continued monopoly over her works, even though she herself no longer exists to control the privacy of that intellectual property.
The 1998 Sunny Bono Copyright Act led a veiled assault on the public domain in the name of the artists' memory, effectively turning intellectual property into "a memento mori." This skews the public perception so that the public views copyright as the province of artists rather than as the province of copyright holders. Since Wordsworth believed that poets create the taste by which they are to be enjoyed, he expected that the greatest remuneration for his poetry would come posthumously. As a result, he thought that copyright should be perpetual, so that an artist's heirs can enjoy the benefits that ought to have occurred to the artist in her lifetime. Wordsworth grew more conservative with age, but what about Moore, and the avant-garde more generally? Given that an avant-garde presents itself as a force for change in society, are its views on intellectual property necessarily in favor of an expanded public domain? Unlike some of the other modernists, Moore made a living off of her writing, so these are questions that touch on her use of quotation and her attitude to copyright more generally.
Call#: Van Pelt Library PN212 .C47 1990
In the chapter A New Kind of Film Adaptation, Chatman counters the critique often aimed at film adaptations based on literature: that film adaptations take away from the audience's use of imagination by displaying everything on screen. Noted scholar Wolfgang Iser is quoted by Chatman saying that, "The point here is that the reader is able to visualize the hero virtually for himself. The moment these possibilities are narrowed down to one complete and immutable picture, the imagination is put out of action." Chatman argues that the imagination is not excluded by the visual medium of film and much can be left for the audience to imagine. In particular, dialogue and narration do not always present what the characters are thinking or feeling in film. For example, body language and expression often go unexplained by direct conversation or even diegetic context in the film.
Chatman mentions Rashomon as an excellent adaptation that invokes the audience's imagination. Although Kurosawa directly translates the dialogue and storyline from which the film is based onto the screen, the film still leaves it to the audience's imagination to try and resolve incongruities and figure out what actually happened. Each of the stories in Rashomon represents what the characters think and believe, however, imagination is not limited by this straightforward presentation of the characters' perspective. In fact, it turns out that these presentations are not straightforward after all. Although everything is presented to the audience visually, there is room to play with and entice the imagination of the audience.
In many ways, the term he uses, imagination, may be inadequate. What he is referring to is the workings of the human mind in its entirety. Rashomon inspires thoughts that do not fall under the scope of imagination, namely critical-thinking, rationalism and emotion. These thought processes make the audience active participants in the film.
Call#: Van Pelt Library PN603 .F8 1969
Inidividualism as a creed, its effects on form and the relationship to nature, of the Romantic hero. Role of imagination, its 'esemplastic,' mediating, modifying powers, at work. Relative importance of feeling, its expression, 'overflow,' 'spontaneous.'
worthwhile choronological chart of publications
2nd edition (1979) pp. 119-209 cited by mark evan bonds
Call#: Van Pelt Library Rosengarten Reserve PN1912 .B7 1995
cited by Mary Ann Smart
Call#: Van Pelt Library B105.M4 J64 1987
pp. 139-72 cited by mark evan bonds