The New Faces of America
Immigrant networks are recasting the U.S. in unforeseen ways.
In 1871 Walt Whitman foresaw the way human beings would relate to each other in our era. As he put it in "Passage to India," a poem in the ever expanding Leaves of Grass, "Lo, soul, seest thou not God's purpose from the first? The earth to be spann'd, connected by network."
Whitman's lines evoke for me how an immigrant can come to a big, expensive city like New York or San Francisco without papers, without money, without housing and make a new life. Or how other immigrants come in at the top of the scale and find jobs whose salaries start at several times the median income. The answer lies in the network: They go to their tribes, their villages in the city. Whether it is an association of software engineers, an alumni association or a church group, immigrants live and die, work and marry, pray and play within the network.
Neither Apu nor Durga had ever seen a train while they lived in their village. One might argue that the highlight of the movie is when they run through the fields waiting in anticipation for the train to arrive, as they share a moment of awe in silence. Although the movie was made in the 1950's, right after India's independence, it is shocking to note that half its population had not even seen what a train looked like. Apu's father in the film traveled by foot, and then by bullock cart when he needed to make his way to Benaras or another nearby town. But, with the coming of the train was ingrained a ray of hope for Durga who also wished to explore and move out of her village. Unfortunately, this dream was never fulfilled as she died due to a fever she caught while playing out in the fields in the rain. This exemplifies the level of underdevelopment and need for change within India, especially for the villagers who form a majority of India's population.
tagged development india by kjhalani ...on 10-APR-08
After watching Pather Panchali, and reading an article like this, it becomes evident that a Satyajit Ray injected aspects of his own personality when molding characters for his movies. The elegance and calmness with which he viewed the world seems to be reflected in the father's character in the movie. Also, Durga seems to be the quintessential example of Ray's view of Indian women of the time, as he shows a young girl full of life, yet extremely responsible towards her family. Therefore, in order to understand Ray as a person, it is of paramount importance to watch his first, and possibly last film.
Apu's father in the movie is faced with a similar situation, whereby he is living an impoverished life. A man, who is greatly respected by fellow villagers due to the fact that he is educated and wishes to be a poet, is given no respect when he travels to the city in search of a job to earn a living to feed his family. In the movie Harihar Ray wishes to be a writer because he is born into a family of writers, because he belongs to the Brahmin caste. But, given the lack of jobs in the village itself, he wonders to a nearby city where he is ill-treated, firstly because he is looked upon as a villager, and secondly is unable to get jobs that ‘villagers' would get because they are all reserved for ‘villagers' from a lower caste. Given that this movie was made in 1958, it goes to show that people all over India suffered from such problems post independence as well. And although the movie is set in Bengal and not in Tamil Nadu, Brahmin's around the country seemed to live lives similar to the ones articulated by Satyajit Ray in this film, as well as ones written about by Bellman in the newspaper article.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A dabbawala (one who carries the box, see Etymology), sometimes spelled dabbawalla or dabbawallah, is a person in the Indian city of Mumbai whose job is to carry and deliver freshly made food from home in lunch boxes to office workers. Tiffin is an old-fashioned English word for a light lunch, and sometimes for the box it is carried in. Dabbawalas are sometimes called tiffin-wallas.
In India, Grandma Cooks, They Deliver
By SARITHA RAI
MUMBAI, India - Gaurav Bamania, a hedge fund analyst who works in one of the many downtown office towers that now dominate the skyline of India's financial capital, could easily eat lunch at one of the city's better restaurants. Instead, Mr. Bamania, 26, follows a practice dating back over a century to the early years of British rule: he has a hot meal, lovingly cooked at home by his grandmother, and delivered to his desk every workday.
In India, where many traditions are being rapidly overturned as a result of globalization, the practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch lives on.
To achieve that in this sprawling urban amalgamation of an estimated 25 million people, where long commutes by train and bus are routine, Mumbai residents rely on an intricately organized, labor-intensive operation that puts some automated high-tech systems to shame. It manages to deliver tens of thousands of meals to workplaces all over the city with near-clockwork precision.
At the heart of this unusual network is a chain of delivery men called dabbawallas.
After giving this overview, which shows how often the United States has tried to influence the IPR regimes of the four BRIC countries, the article delves into a section entitled, “Coercion as an Ineffective Strategy in Promoting Intellectual Property Protection in the BRIC Countries.” This section is long and detailed with many examples of statistics showing how the United States has not achieved its goals through means of coercion. The article explicitly gives statistics for each country. The culmination of this large number of statistics is to show that not only does coercion not necessarily work, it can often be detrimental to the original goal. Examples of poor results are given for China and India.
The final section of this article argues that unilateral initiatives are an understudied method of strengthening IPR regimes in the BRIC countries. Unilateral initiatives are defined as “a voluntary conciliatory action presented by one party to the benefit of the other.” Examples of unilateral initiatives that have been successful are then given.
This article is plainly written with an obvious objective: to endorse unilateral initiatives as opposed to coercion as a way of reforming IPR in the BRIC countries. This method of change is supportive of a gradual change in the IPR regime in China as it does not expect immediate results and therefore, presents an effective means of carrying through with the project's thesis, which is always an important consideration when proposing an argument.