In 2004, the Motion Pictures Association of America (MPAA) set out to complete a study on film piracy through the L.E.K. consulting group. The goal of this study is to asses the film industry's U.S. and international losses, as well as the specific demographics who are to blame for the rise in film piracy. The resulting statistics are the most in depth to date, in 2004, and focus on three main issues: the losses incurred because of both internet and hard goods piracy, the cost that piracy inflicts upon both domestic and international industries, and a demographic overview of the typical piracy culprit. According to the the findings in this study, MPAA studios lost $6.1 billion because of piracy in 2005. 62% of the $6.1 billion comes from piracy of hard goods, such as DVD's, and 38% comes from internet piracy. Out of the $6.1 billion, $4.8 billion was lost to international piracy, and $1.3 billion to United States piracy. The MPAA further breaks down the loss noting that, approximately $2.4 billion was lost to bootlegging, $1.4 billion to illegal copying, and $2.3 billion to internet piracy. Demographically, the average piracy perpetrator is a 16 to 24 year old urban dwelling male. Specifically, College students located in the U.S., Korea, and Hungary are extremely high contributors to film piracy. The 16 to 24 year old age range accounts for 71% of people who are downloading film. The MPAA's statistical breakdown gives hard evidence as to how prevalent film piracy has in fact become. It also helps to pinpoint the greater effect such piracy has on the Hollywood and worldwide film industries. In addition, the new statistical information provided forces policy makers and policy enforcers to regard film piracy as an important and substantial issue.
Kerry Segrave's book Film Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry dedicates its entirety to my topic. Segrave's research though, extends significantly farther back into the history of film than I will be including in my analysis. She provides a wide berth of information about past and present domestic film issues as well as specific international ones. Chapters 6, "Domestic Piracy, 1975-2001," and 7, "Foreign Piracy, 1975 to 2001," are laden with the utmost pertinent material for my research. In these two chapters, Segrave goes into exquisite detail, not only providing an enormity of statistics, but also documenting vast amounts of specific legal action taken to prevent film piracy over sixteen years. Segrave's in depth method of relaying information allows me to get more than just a surface level understanding of Hollywood's constant struggle concerning film piracy. Her attention to detail regarding legislative measures and the strategic moves made by Hollywood to suppress piracy will add substantial support to my own analysis.
The statement of this interest group discusses the concerns the Anti-Counterfeit Trade Agreement (ACTA) raises. These include the lack of transparency of its content, the limited information given to the public, the fact that this is an executive agreement and the implications this will have in practice in the Unites States political context. Public Knowledge is also uneasy with the terminology used in the ACTA – the use of “piracy” and “counterfeit” without concrete definitions of what these words would encompass.
The opinion of Public Knowledge adds an important perspective to my argument because it criticizes the format and the ramifications of ACTA implementation on a domestic level. The interest group raises the fact that the ACTA is an executive agreement and as such does not require the “signatories to be accountable to the public” since it circumvents Congress. If one links this information to the claim that the ACTA is supported predominantly by copyright industries then it leads me to believe that the sole purpose of this accord is to give the companies such as the RIAA and MPAA greater powers to prosecute copyright infringement internationally at their own discretion. Eliminating accountability also signifies that the United States Trade Representative (USTR) does not want to directly involve the U.S. in multinational infringement disputes but only seeks to facilitate the domestic copyright industry to defend its rights in the international arena. The limitation of the Public Knowledge opinion is that it doesn’t consider the newest Fact Sheet that was released by the USTR in August 2008. Even though the fact sheet does not give a substantial amount of concrete information, it does formally address some of Public Knowledge’s questions.
This article discusses the legal framework in which copyright cases are debated and decided. Geller begins by describing the basis of “territoriality” and how it is derived from the international system of nation-states and clear boundaries. The author admits that this definition is highly problematic when dealing with cyberspace and transfers of data that cut across borders. He then goes on to discuss the variations in each country’s laws regarding cyberspace copyright infringement and how this often leads to inconsistent judgments. For example, in a case that involves multiple countries, a court may award infringement compensation within the conservative limits of a particular country’s legal system. At the same time, it might use justification from another country’s legal code to grant a severe punishment. Geller concludes that the most effective way of combating international intellectual piracy is through a standardized legal code that eliminates such gross inconsistencies.
This paper is very valuable for the question that I am trying to answer, because it shows the legal perspective and legal limitations of the prosecution of international copyright infringement cases. The Internet operates in a borderless context and if the international community wants to regulate online copyright infringement, multinational institutions needs to modify their framework. Similarly, if the ACTA is to be effective, it should not be based on a borders and territoriality. The paper also demonstrates that the ACTA will merely add another set of rules to the already complicated international legal network. Nevertheless, the paper fails to propose a way to iron out the inconsistencies in legal codes around the world. Perhaps the ACTA is a valuable multinational forum but its focus should be shifted to addressing the problems within the existing legal system and not creating new laws.
The main goal of the Foundation’s higher education program in South Africa is to develop capacity in higher education by providing opportunities for individuals who were previously disadvantaged and individuals who have demonstrated a commitment to the previously disadvantaged.
Grants from the Foundation have supported regional library collaborations of universities and technikons (now universities of technology). All 21 higher education institutions and the National Library of South Africa have benefited from our support of five regional consortia. The Foundation also made grants to the South African Bibliographic Network (SABINET) to support library collaboration at the national level and to promote access to JSTOR, a scholarly journal archive (www.jstor.org). In addition, the Foundation has worked to improve access to the Internet for all of South African higher education through the Tertiary Education Network (www.tenet.ac.za).
The Hewlett Foundation Open Educational Resources Initiative seeks to use information technology to help equalize access to knowledge and educational opportunities across the world. The initiative targets educators, students and self-learners worldwide. Supports high quality digitized educational materials offered freely for anyone with Internet access. Over 50 funded projects, including: See site/newsletter for more info
The Hewlett Foundation Open Educational Resources Initiative seeks to use information technology to help equalize access to knowledge and educational opportunities across the world. The initiative targets educators, students and self-learners worldwide.
Supports high quality digitized educational materials offered freely for anyone with Internet access. Over 50 funded projects, including:
See site/newsletter for more info
Call#: Van Pelt Library HA4675 .M552 2003
Call#: Van Pelt Library QC982 .I584 1998
Call#: Van Pelt Library QC982 .I584 1998
Call#: Storage: From RECORD page, use Place Request tab STORAGE QC982 .I584 1998
Call#: Storage: From RECORD page, use Place Request tab STORAGE QC982 .I584 1998
v. 2. Western United States
v. 3. Europe
v. 4. Asia and Southeastern Europe
v. 5. Middle East, Africa, South America, and Australia.
Call#: Storage: From RECORD page, use Place Request tab STORAGE QC983 .N28 2002
24 cds record hourly surface readings internationally from 1995-2002.v.1. Greenland, England, Northern Europe
v.2. Central Europe
v.3. Eastern and southern Europe and the Mediterranean
v.4. Northeastern Europe and Asia
v.5. Ulan Bator (Mongolia), Middle East and Southern Asia
v.6. Africa and Indian Ocean
v.7. Eastern United States
v.8. Central United States
v.9. Western United States
v.10. Alaska and Canada
v.11. Mexico, Caribbean, Central/South America and Antarctica
v.12. Australia, Indonesia, Pacific Ocean and Hawaii
v.13. Greenland Europe, and Asia
v. 14. Asia, Middle East, and Africa
v. 15. United States
v. 16. Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Oceania and Antartica
v. 17. Greenland, Europe, and Asia (2001)
v. 18. Asia, Middle East, and Africa (2001)
v. 19. United States (2001)
v. 20. Canada, Mexico, South America, Central America, Oceania and Antarctica (2001)
V. 13-16 have title: Integrated surface hourly 2000
V. 17-20 have title: Integrated surface hourly observations 2001
V. 21- have title: Integrated surface hourly observations 2002
This article in the New York Times refers to an international law case against 20th Century Fox for the production of the movie Kingdom of Heaven. The article states that James Reston Jr accused the director, Ridley Scott, and the movie production studio of producing a work that uses ''events, characters, scenes, descriptions and character tensions'' that are supposedly extremely similar to portrayals in the movie. This case was not readily available and the outcome unknown, as it may have been handled privately outside of court.
Although James Reston, Jr. is an American, his research was performed in many European and Arab countries. He claims that his book Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade was extensively copied during the creation of Scott’s film, Kingdom of Heaven. Reston’s book is written in a unique narrative form for popular readings as opposed to straightforward academic writings. While historical facts cannot be copyrighted, Reston claims that his distinct expression was illegally used.
The interesting points brought up in this article are the arguments on behalf of both domestic and international copyright law. James Reston, Jr. understands that his case is intermittently weak because it deals with the historical past, however he claims the expression of his research is what Kingdom of Heaven infringes on. The use of international copyright law in this context claims infringement but this case does not seem like it was ever brought to court. International disputes such as these are usually settled out of court so as to avoid negative publicity but also to allow distribution of the film on the original timetable. While it is unclear whether Ridley Scott used the expression of Reston’s historical research is unclear, the lack of a case and the subsequent release of the film implies that this dispute was handled so that both parties were satisfied. Kingdom of Heaven used themes gained from an international source and through current American application of international copyright law, was able to release the movie without a legal case.
tagged Copyright International by mangano ...on 28-NOV-06
"The Trouble With Larry." Forbes (2004) Vol. 173 Issue 6, p84, 1p
The article is a response to Lessig and his beliefs than anything else. The technology section of Forbes Magazine is usually not a theater for copyright arguments and Manes goal is clear from the beginning of the article: to discredit Lessig and his extreme view of fair use. As such, Manes’ arguments are less academic and more of a subjective style. While this has limited value, Manes opinion serves as at least a dissenting view of the situation. It is these general disagreements in which Manes basis his article.
Manes believes that there is a strong need for a balanced definition of fair use for copyright law, but that Lessig’s opinion is far too liberal, allowing for illegal activities to occur at the expense of the creators. To finish his attack on Lessig, Manes points to a Supreme Court ruling that Lessig lost attempting to reform the current copyright law. Lessig believes in legal file sharing and is a proponent of technology, whereas Manes prefers current law is adequate.
A major point of disagreement comes from the fact that Manes believes a new copyright law similar in proposal to Lessig’s would be detrimental to our current international copyright law. If changed, Manes argues, it could effectively destroy treaties, agreements, and current practices of media culture, thus greatly affecting America’s cultural export.
The closing comment relates to my thesis in that Manes argues that current copyright law has established the United States as the major culture center in the world. He states that “our intellectual property provides America’s greatest worldwide successes,” and that current copyright law facilitates this flow. Manes credits current copyright law to the success and globalization of American movies and music and that Lessig’s attempt to change copyright laws would greatly detriment this.
tagged Copyright Intellecutal_Property International by mangano ...on 28-NOV-06
"Piracy battle a global one, Shiner tells AFM attendees." Hollywood Reporter -- Internaional (2005) Vol. 391 Issue 37, p96-96, 1/3p
This article from the Hollywood Reporter describes the message given y Josette Sheeran Shiner on behalf of the US Secretary of State at the American Federation of Musicians. Shiner states that international intellectual property protection is important for everyone, not just studios in Hollywood. Shiner states that the problem of intellectual piracy is rampant in the world in nearly all sectors, not just entertainment.
Shiner credits the MPA for its work protecting film products, but she states that the problem is much broader than the ‘audiovisual sector.’ The same problem that exists with intellectual piracy in film also exists with “manufactured good from baby foods to automobile parts,” Shiner states, highlighting the need for better protection. In attempts to strengthen protection of US goods, the United States has joined APAC and the G8 with hopes of timely positive results.
As countries develop protection against piracy, Shiner claims that they tend to strengthen their own investment and brand names as well. Shiner refers to China as a region in which positive progress has been made to protect intellectual property with encouraging results.
This article points to the fact that countries that better protect intellectual property, better protect their own property, and in turn help cultivate it. Intellectual property theft is extremely common in China and as steps are taken to protect rights, brands and exports are cultivated and delivered to the rest of the world. Piracy in China has greatly hurt the Chinese film industry however, as law enforcement of intellectual property improves, the cultivation of film improves.
American cinema benefits from this through distribution and potential value for American remakes of movies. Few mainland Chinese movies are released in America due to the lack of quality from extensive piracy. However, once practices change, both China and the United State can greatly benefit from better product production, distribution, and authorized adaptation.
"High potential seen for Ultraman films" Bangkok Post (Thailand), Jun 10, 2005This article from the Bamrung Amnatcharoenrit reports that the Japanese character “Ultraman” is showing expanded interest for product distribution around the world greater than earlier anticipated. Ultraman was originally a Japanese television show released in 1966 with exclusive distribution in Japan. Tsuburaya Chaiyo Co. of Thailand later purchased the Ultraman copyright in all regions except Japan and has noticed a greater than anticipated interest in the character.
The article marks the end of a ten year copyright dispute between Tsuburaya Productions Co in Japan and Tsuburaya Chaiyo Co in Thailand. The company’s president, Sompote Saengduenchai states that he is enthusiastic to bring the Japanese character into worldwide distribution. Both the Japanese and Thai government ruled in favor of Tsuburaya Chaiyo Co and ordered the Japanese company to pay millions of Baht in compensation. Tsuburaya Produciton Co was unable to because of financial difficulties and it seems as though this dispute is finally over.
Sompote Saengduenchai also claimed that was in talks with an American film production company to create an American movie based on the character of Ultraman, the details of which are not yet specific.
This article pertains to my thesis about international copyright law in that it is an example of a foreign idea being implemented by another country through the application of international copyright law. Because of Tsuburaya Chaiyo Co in Thailand, distribution of this unique and popular character is not merely limited to Japan. Even though negotiations with American companies, it is likely that the US will create its own rendition of this character in film. This originally Japanese character of Ultraman would most likely not have left Japan had it not been for international copyright companies and the law to safeguard distribution.
tagged Copyright Distribution International by mangano ...on 28-NOV-06
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The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project is the third consecutive worldwide research project initiated by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to provide data and analysis on the population, health, and nutrition of women and children in developing countries. Its two predecessors, the World Fertility Survey (WFS) and the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPS), paved the way for the DHS project by focusing their research on questions related to fertility, family planning, and mortality. They also helped develop DHS' current reputation as a leader in the field of demographic and health research.
"EarthTrends is a comprehensive online database, maintained by the World Resources Institute, that focuses on the environmental, social, and economic trends that shape our world."
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Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks JF1001 .M17 1991
Call#: Van Pelt Library Reference Stacks JF1001 .E37 1989
Call#: Van Pelt Library 324 SE991 V.1
Call#: Van Pelt Library HQ503 .S56 2003
Bibliographic citations and subject indexing for the international journal article and book literature in anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology. Produced by British Library of Political and Economic Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, with the support and assistance of International Committee for Social Science Information and Documentation and UNESCO.
Holdings: Covers 1951 to the present in three separate files.
Formerly produced by Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, this database comprises international coverage of veterinary medicine, agriculture, forestry and related bio-science fields, including: human health; human nutrition; animal health; and resource management and conservation. The database includes over 3 million records with 30% of the coverage relating to crop production, 24% in veterinary and human health, 13% in animal sciences, 13% in crop protection, and 19-20% of the content covering a wide array of other, related topics.
Holdings: 1910 to the present. Updated monthly.
The ISI Citation Indexes include the Science Citation Index, the Social Science Citation Index, and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index.
ISI allows you to sort articles based on the number of times they've been cited, and to easily move from an article to the articles that have cited it, making it a great search engine for locating the most influential articles and authors on your topic.
Holdings: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)--1945-present
Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)--1956-present
Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI)--1975-present
Create digital maps that display a wide range of cultural material by using place and time as a common element.
ECAI technical infrastructure illustrates the vision of sharing distributed data and using time enabled mapping tools.