Journal of Transport and Land Use The Journal of Transport and Land Use (JTLU) is a free, open-access, and peer-reviewed publication that welcomes articles on topics at the interdisciplinary intersection of transport and land use, including research from the domains of engineering, planning, modeling, behavior, economics, geography, regional science, sociology, architecture and design, network science, and complex systems.
View selected historic maps and aerial photographs, mixed with current data from Google in a Google Maps viewer. The "crown jewel" is a full-city mosaic of the 1942 Philadelphia Land Use Maps.
Tuesday, April 01, 2008
Mike Batty at CASA has been working on a Land use transport model for London. The model simulates the location of the residential population as a function of this employment, floorspace and generalised travel cost. The model is currently, a partially constrained spatial interaction/residential location model disaggregated by four modes of transport – road, heavy rail, light rail (tube and DLR) and bus, with walk-cycle-other the fifth residual mode.
- Is Los Angeles-style sprawl desirable? By: Ewing, Reid, Journal of the American Planning Association, 01944363, Winter97, Vol. 63, Issue 1
- Academic Search Premier
- Focuses on the characteristics, causes and costs of compact development. Distinction from high density or monocentric development; Indications of poor accessibility and lack of functional open space; Market-related causes; Result of market failure; Consumer preference on compact centers; Energy consumption and air pollution; Infrastructure and public service costs; Impact on cities and downtowns.
The only policy intervention endorsed by G & R is the imposition of congestion charges and emissions fees as shadow prices for external costs of auto use, specifically for delay and air pollution imposed on others. This is a safe endorsement for sprawl lovers. While congestion pricing and emissions fees have been touted by economists for decades, those in political power have not exactly rushed to meter their constituents' travel (Orski 1992; Arrillaga 1993).
The first federal demonstration program on congestion pricing, 1973-1978, produced no demonstrations. The current Congestion Pricing Pilot Program, started five years ago, has produced one limited pilot project (and many planning studies) (FHA 1996). Millions of dollars of spending authority were recently rescinded. Most candidates for future congestion pricing are individual bridges or expressways that already charge tolls, but would charge a premium at peak hours. Areawide congestion pricing is a good idea whose time has apparently not come.
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Job/Housing Imbalance and Commuting Time in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area: Exploration of Causes of Longer Commuting Time
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|Bibliographic details||2002, VOL 23; PART 8, pages 728-749|
Call#: HT101 .U683
Through estimation of a discrete choice model of residential location, this study argues that commute time remains a dominant determinant of residential location at the regional scale, and that provision of affordable housing near employment concentrations can influence residential location decisions for low-to-moderate-income, single-worker households. However, the significance of jobs-hunting balance is not in reducing congestion; even when successful, such policies will have little impact on average travel speeds. Rather, the relaxation of suburban regulation that could lead to improved matches between home and workplace is seen as enhancing the range of households' choices about residence and transportation.
Journal The Annals of Regional Science
Issue Volume 41, Number 2 / June, 2007
Mark W. Horner
Abstract Issues of growth, especially the spatial nature of recent urban development and its implications for travel patterns, have received a great deal of attention. In particular, questions persist as to how the spatial distribution of workers and jobs influences commute patterns. This paper investigates changes in commuting and land use patterns using measures of jobs-housing balance, commuting efficiency and other statistics. A smaller urban area is chosen for study (Tallahassee, FL, USA)and data on its workers, jobs, and commute patterns are obtained from the Census Transportation Planning Package for 1990 and 2000. The key research questions investigated probe whether there were substantial changes in urban form and commuting over the period. A two-tiered approach is taken where change is explored at the regional and local scales using GIS, optimization procedures, and inferential statistical techniques. The results reveal the extent of the spatial changes in the study area between 1990 and 2000. Major findings included stability in urban structure over the time period, as well as a persistent strong relationship between land use and commute patterns. These results are discussed in light of their implications for other cities and for future work.
Study: Americans Commute an Average 25 Minutes
Morning Edition, October 12, 2007 · A new study shows the average American commutes an average of 25 minutes. That's almost nine full days a year behind the wheel. Commutes have worsened over the last two decades because highways haven't kept pace with population growth and urban sprawl. If you work in New York City, your average commute is the worst in the country: almost 36 minutes long. For the nation's easiest commutes, you have to turn to the colder climes of Omaha and Buffalo.
Call#: Lippincott Library HE355 .S49 1989
Journal of the American Planning Association; Summer2003, Vol. 69 Issue 3, p265, 17p, 4 charts, 1 graph, 3 maps, 1bw
- This article presents an empirical Study of the relationship between neighborhood-scale urban form and travel behavior. It focuses on households who relocate within the Central Puget Sound region to determine if they change their travel behavior when they move from one neighborhood type to another. Regression models are used to predict change in travel behavior as a function of change in neighborhood accessibility, controlling for changes in life cycle, regional accessibility, and workplace accessibility. The study is unique in that it analyzes the travel behavior of the same households in a longitudinal manner in concert with detailed urban form measures. The findings suggest that households change travel behavior when exposed to differing urban forms. In particular, locating to areas with higher neighborhood accessibility decreases vehicle miles traveled
Volume 29 Issue 3 Page 331-332, August 2007
E. R. Alexander (2007)
Zoned Out: Regulation, Markets and Choices in Transportation and Metropolitan Land-Use, by Jonathan Levine
Journal of Urban Affairs 29 (3), 331-332.
© 1993 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Locational Models, Geographic Information and Planning Support Systems
Geographic information systems (GIS) are becoming widespread in management and planning, affecting the very organization and operation of the planning process itself. In this paper we address the problems and potential of such systems, particularly in relation to the analytical, predictive, and prescriptive models on which strategic planning processes are based. Current GIS are not rooted in the sorts of functions which drive these processes and here we will identify the difficulties and possibilities for developing more appropriate GIS which are sensitive to the simulation, optimization, and design activities which define spatial planning. To this end we will describe the development of planning support systems (PSS) in which a wide array of data, information, and knowledge might be structured, and within which GIS develop ment must take place. We will identify the sorts of urban system and locational models which characterize strategic planning and whose data-demands might be accommodated using GIS. Our critique of GIS is positive and constructive in that we are concerned to embed GIS into planning processes in the most appropriate way. In conclusion we will identify a series of requirements which PSS must meet.
© 2000 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Land Use and Transportation Interaction
Implications on Public Health and Quality of Life
Lawrence D. Frank, Ph.D.
College of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Increases in per capita vehicle usage and associated emissions have spawned an increased examination of the ways in which our communities and regions are developing. Associated with increased vehicle usage are decreased levels of walking and biking, two valid forms of physical activity. The Surgeon General's 1996 report, Physical Activity and Health, highlights the increasing level of physical inactivity as a growing cause of mortality. The costs and benefits of contrasting land development and transportation investment practices have been the subject of considerable debate in the literature. Findings have been refuted based on methodological grounds and inaccurate interpretation of data. Several of these studies, their methodological approaches, and their critiques are analyzed. While most agree that the built environment influences travel, considerable disagreement exists over the likely impacts of increased density, mix, and street connectivity on air quality, and on transportation system performance and household activity patterns.
© 2005 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Teaching Integrated Land Use-Transportation Planning
Topics, Readings, and Strategies
University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Planning pedagogy is increasingly focused on teaching interdisciplinary topics in an integrated and synergistic manner. The intersection of land use and transportation is that of two topics that have risen to be front and center for the planning profession. This article focuses on the manner in which planning programs and, in particular, specific courses address land use and transportation planning. After describing the context in which such courses exist, this article analyzes syllabi from fifteen courses in North American planning programs in two respects. The first examines the list of topics covered within each course by discussing the nature of primary, secondary, and peripheral topics. Second, the analysis uncovers the frequency with which specific readings are employed in each course. The article closes by discussing the nature of a land use-transportation course from the University of Minnesota in which there is a lecture and laboratory component.
Key Words: transportation planning • land use planning • teaching • interdisciplinary • pedagogy
© 1997 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Common Ground for Integrating Planning Theory and GIS Topics
Department of city and regional planning Cornell University, Ithaca, New Yorkame7@cornell.edu.
E. Bruce MacDougall
Department of landscape architecture and regionalplanning, University of Massachusetes, Amherstebm@1arp.umass.edu.
The basic premise of this article is that planning theory and geographic information systems (GIS) course topics should be integrated in the planning curriculum. The increased use of GIS technology for informing planning and public policy decision making is discussed in the first section, followed by a summary of related technical and theoretical disparities. The concept of links is then introduced and used in the final section to demonstrate the contexts in which common themes can be identified for integrating planning norms (ethics, values, communicative rationality, planning process, and context) and GIS methods (data creation, analysis, and presentation).
© 1995 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning
Extending the Revolution: Teaching Land Use Planning in a GIS Environment
William J. Drummond
For planning educators the ultimate worth of the GIS revolution will be measured not by the number of new GIS courses offered, but by the integration of GIS technology into the traditional, substantive areas of planning. In the field of land use planning this integration remains in its infancy. The article suggests a general, modular approach for the incorporation of GIS technology into land use planning course work, using a combination of GIS, database, and spreadsheet software. Numerous specific examples are provided, including major applicauons in data collection, preliminary analysis, plan formulation, and plan evaluation.
By DAVID POMERANTZ
Special to the Sun
July 24, 2007
For years, community leaders in the Upper East and West sides have been complaining about deliverymen who ride bicycles on sidewalks, run red lights, and generally menace pedestrians.
"The cyclists hit people left and right and just keep on going," the president of the 20th Police Precinct community council on the Upper West Side, Sam Katz, said. Ms. Katz and other leaders are counting on a new law that takes effect Thursday to help address the problem. The law, passed in March, requires restaurant managers to provide their deliverymen with safety equipment such as helmets, bells, and headlights. It also obliges restaurant managers to hang up posters — written in both English and the language spoken by the deliverymen — outlining the rules of the road for cyclists.
Deliverymen on bicycles irk residents on the Upper West Side so much that they are the no. 1 complaint heard by the 20th Precinct there, Lieutenant Biagio Carbone said.
What is Walk Score?
Walk Score helps people find walkable places to live. Walk Score calculates the walkability of an address by locating nearby stores, restaurants, schools, parks, etc.
How It Works
Walk Score helps people find walkable places to live. Walk Score calculates the walkability of an address by locating nearby stores, restaurants, schools, parks, etc. Check out how Walk Score doesn't work.
What does my score mean?
Your Walk Score is a number between 0 and 100. The walkability of an address depends on how far you are comfortable walking-after all, everything is within walking distance if you have the time. Here are general guidelines for interpreting your score:
* 90 - 100 = Walkers' Paradise: Most errands can be accomplished on foot and many people get by without owning a car.
* 70 - 90 = Very Walkable: It's possible to get by without owning a car.
* 50 - 70 = Some Walkable Locations: Some stores and amenities are within walking distance, but many everyday trips still require a car.
* 25 - 50 = Not Walkable: Only a few destinations are within easy walking range. For most errands, driving is a must.
* 0 - 25 = Driving Only: Virtually no neighborhood destinations within walking range. You can walk from your house to your car!
How it Works
Walk ScoreTM uses a patent-pending algorithm to calculate the walkability of an address based on:
* The distance to walkable locations near an address.
* Calculating a score for each of these locations.
* Combining these scores into one easy to read Walk Score.
Read more about what makes a neighborhood walkable. We'd love to hear your feedback. Send us a suggestion!
The Journal is open access. Articles accepted and published in the Journal will be free to read for anyone with internet access. This increases the visibility of scientific communication, both to other researchers and to the public at large. The research will not be held captive by for-profit publishers or buried in stacks of university libraries. All papers accepted for publication will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License 3.0 .
The Journal is free to publish in. Unlike some open access journals, there are no fees for publishing in the journal. The Journal is operated on a volunteer basis with some institutional support from the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota. The costs are reduced as there is no paper version of the Journal, which is online-only.
The Journal is peer-reviewed. All scientific articles are reviewed by other researchers in the field for their scientific merit on questions of transport and land use (including originality, accuracy, relevance, importance, and transparency - including comprendibility and reproducability). Reviews, Opinion, and Commentary are reviewed by the editors.
land use and environmental planning
physical planning and urban design
housing community and economic development
planning in developing countries
The derived nature of transportation demand implies that enhancement of mobility per se is not a reasonable goal for transportation policy; instead, improved mobility is desired to the extent that it furthers accessibility-a goal that can be achieved through a variety of measures. The paper uses the mobility-accessibility distinction to distinguish different implementations of congestion pricing. A mobility-based congestion pricing promises to alleviate congestion but threatens to deteriorate from overall regional accessibility as it accelerates metropolitan deconcentration. In contrast, accessibility-based congestion pricing avoids acceleration of sprawl by incorporating policies to ensure that drivers tolled off roads are replaced with residents and travelers arriving at previously congested areas by other means.
Anger Drives Property Rights Measures - New York Times
By WILLIAM YARDLEY
Supporters of the ballot efforts in the West — often called “Kelo-plus” — say they want to stop so-called regulatory takings, the idea that government effectively takes private property when zoning laws limit how it can be used.
Opponents say the regulatory-takings initiatives are essentially a ruse, that they are trying to exploit anger over the Kelo decision and eminent domain to roll back zoning regulations that are critical to controlling growth, protecting the environment and preserving property values.
The more far-reaching proposals in the West — in Idaho, Arizona, California and Washington State — are citizens’ initiatives supported by signature petitions, and they are often supported financially and logistically by national libertarian groups.
Call#: Fine Arts Library HT169.7 .L48 2006