An 8-title collection of reference resources on poetry, the novel, and literary theory
Literature Online currently makes the following reference works searchable individually or as a group:
The Encyclopedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English (Routledge, 1994)
Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism (Columbia University Press, 1995)
Encyclopedia of American Poetry: The Nineteenth Century (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998)
Encyclopedia of the Novel (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998)
New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (Princeton University Press, 1993)
The Columbia Companion to the Twentieth-Century American Short Story (Columbia University Press, 2001)
The Columbia Dictionary of Modern European Literature (Columbia University Press, 1980)
Feldman, Stuart. "At the Movies: Business Gets a Bad Rap." Management Review. 81 (1992): 49-54.
This article discusses Hollywood's portrayal of big businesses over time. Generally Hollywood has portrayed big businesses in a negative light and Modern Times is no exception. Scholars suggest that this may be the case due to the nature of filmmakers and more liberal and critical of big businesses. This negative depiction portrays back to the 1930s with Chaplin's film. The article describes scenes in which company tycoon interact with the workers. He has a large screen that surveys them as they work and can easily make sure they stay in line. Even when Chaplin's character is take a break in the bathroom, he is ordered (via gian screen) to get back to work.
This relates to my thesis because it helps to highlight why Chaplin and others would have this critical opinion on big businesses born out of the industrialization period. The authority figure has complete control and domination over the workers every move. There is no employee-employer relationship (other than through a large screen) and employees are thought of as numbers. They are tolerated when they are working, but once they step out of line they are punished. This punisment forces workers to stay in line with everyone else further perpetuating homogeneity.
Grace, Harry A. "Charlie Chaplin's Films and American Culture Patterns." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 10 (1952): 353-363.
This article reviews several of Chaplin's films including Modern Times to show how they are relevant to the problems of society at the time. The article reviews the film under the assumption that the major themes of his films are illustrations of American historical events/periods over time. Modern Times (1936) represents the effects of the industrialization period on men. More specifically Modern Times portrays the job situation for men in the age of technological advancement. Industrialization led to a different job experience for he working class man. Large assembly lines became the norm for lower income workers in order to produce mass products by machinery.
This relates to my thesis because it highlights the problem of the job situation workers faced after industrialization. Assembly lines in large factories lead to a loss of indivduality. Everyone is doing the same work at the same time for the same amont of time everyday. We see in the film that assembly lines are monotonous, repetitive, and can lead one to almost go insane (We see Chaplin's character act as though he is working in the assembly line even when he is on a lunch break). Workers are no longer individuals; they are merely an extension of the machines solely there to create products for profit.
Wetmore Jr., Kevin J. “Modern Japanese Drama in English.” Asian Theatre Journal 23.1 (2006): 179-205.
This article discusses the modernization of Japanese dramatic mediums. In the late 19th century with the advent of the Meiji Restoration, Japan was opened up to the west politically, economically, and culturally. The conceptual challenge to Japanese theatre brought about the opposing strategies to either renovate traditional theatre or to implement entirely western models. Initially an attempt was made to maintain the traditional forms through the former path, including the reinvention of kabuki with shin-kabuki or “new kabuki” and then later with Shimpa or “New School” which incorporated Western storylines and playwrights with the traditional style and acting of kabuki theatre. Eventually, however, these failed attempts transitioned into a full application of Western models in the early 1900s with shingeki or “new theatre.” This new style marks a complete rejection of tradition, both in the realm of theatre but also in the greater context of Japanese cultural heritage. Shingeki placed emphasis on naturalism and realism, indicating its adherence to modernism. The American occupation between 1945 and 1952, however, brought about a new attitude towards Western views, translating as well into the now established new theatre styles. In the 1960s, the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty crisis of 1960 brought about the formation of a new form developed going by many names, including angora or “underground,” post-shingeki,” and shE gekijE undE or “Little Theatre Movement.” This new form attempted to reconnect with the lost traditions of the pre-modern Japan. The last thirty years show a growth in “modern pluralism,” blending modern and traditional techniques, including the English versions of many works. The author goes on to state that despite such reforms few modern Japanese artists, directors, actors, etc., receive much attention in English.
This article relates to my film because it deals with modernism and the translation of Japanese drama outside of the island. Kurosawa’s film is unique in its modern perspectives and narrative techniques, and its influence across the globe is seen in many contexts. Akutagawa Ryunosuke’s short story is mentioned in the article as an English playwrights using Japanese source material, and the film has influenced many remakes and reinterpretations, such as the films Vantage Point and The Usual Suspects.