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Keller, Bill. “Not Dead Yet: The newspaper in the days of digital anarchy.” Lecture delivered at The Guardian in honor of Hugo Young. November, 29 2007. guardian.co.uk
In addition to providing an intellectual analysis of the future of journalism, Bill Keller’s address (appropriately for his audience) begins sentimentally, with anecdotes about Hugh Young, The New York Times, The Guardian and journalism as a profession. But halfway through the address Keller provides the meat of his discussion, which is his educated opinion about the future of newspapers and journalism.
Keller's main argument emphasizes that the differences between the investigative reporting of The New York Times or The Guardian and GoogleNews or Wikipedia's "legions of bloggers." "What is absent from the vast array of new media outlets is," Keller argues, "the great engine of newsgathering – the people who witness events, ferret out information, supply context and explanation." Though Keller rightly points out that opinion and journalism are different, he falsely accuses all internet commentors and 'citizen journalists' of being holed up behind computer screens rather than being active human participants in the world. Certainly there are differences between bloggers and journalists, but what Keller seems to mistake is that journalists must be associated with The Times or The Guardian or The Boston Globe in order to be investigative journalists, or even to "witness events," "ferret out information" or "supply context and explanation."
This source is of particular interest to the paper because it was written at the time of the films release. This is the original New York Times movie review that the makers of Casablanca were anxiously awaiting on November 7th 1942. Michael Curtiz and company certainly had nothing to worried about as Bosley Crowther gave the film a rave review and hailed it as “one of the year’s most exciting and trenchant films.” Crowther awards Casablanca for its flawless combination of sentiment, humor, and sorrow to create a film that is both entertaining and inspiring. The review also comments on the film’s underlying political message, particularly in Humphrey Bogart’s performance as Rick Blaine. Crowther states that the film uses Bogart’s role “to inject a cold point of tough resistance to evil forces afoot in Europe today.” This statement is so telling because it reflects the reaction of audiences during the actual time of the film’s debut; it shows that the film was viewed as a vehicle for propaganda to communicate support of the war effort and a fight against fascism. This review is extremely insightful because it puts the movie into its historical context by lending us the perspective of a movie critic of that specific time period.
Feldman, Stuart. "At the Movies: Business Gets a Bad Rap." Management Review. 81 (1992): 49-54.
This article discusses Hollywood's portrayal of big businesses over time. Generally Hollywood has portrayed big businesses in a negative light and Modern Times is no exception. Scholars suggest that this may be the case due to the nature of filmmakers and more liberal and critical of big businesses. This negative depiction portrays back to the 1930s with Chaplin's film. The article describes scenes in which company tycoon interact with the workers. He has a large screen that surveys them as they work and can easily make sure they stay in line. Even when Chaplin's character is take a break in the bathroom, he is ordered (via gian screen) to get back to work.
This relates to my thesis because it helps to highlight why Chaplin and others would have this critical opinion on big businesses born out of the industrialization period. The authority figure has complete control and domination over the workers every move. There is no employee-employer relationship (other than through a large screen) and employees are thought of as numbers. They are tolerated when they are working, but once they step out of line they are punished. This punisment forces workers to stay in line with everyone else further perpetuating homogeneity.
Grace, Harry A. "Charlie Chaplin's Films and American Culture Patterns." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 10 (1952): 353-363.
This article reviews several of Chaplin's films including Modern Times to show how they are relevant to the problems of society at the time. The article reviews the film under the assumption that the major themes of his films are illustrations of American historical events/periods over time. Modern Times (1936) represents the effects of the industrialization period on men. More specifically Modern Times portrays the job situation for men in the age of technological advancement. Industrialization led to a different job experience for he working class man. Large assembly lines became the norm for lower income workers in order to produce mass products by machinery.
This relates to my thesis because it highlights the problem of the job situation workers faced after industrialization. Assembly lines in large factories lead to a loss of indivduality. Everyone is doing the same work at the same time for the same amont of time everyday. We see in the film that assembly lines are monotonous, repetitive, and can lead one to almost go insane (We see Chaplin's character act as though he is working in the assembly line even when he is on a lunch break). Workers are no longer individuals; they are merely an extension of the machines solely there to create products for profit.
Edward Samuels argues that the extension of copyright law is not a result of a scheme by corporations to cheat the public but rather a part of a system that the framers of the Constitution had in mind in order to “promote the progress of science and useful arts” by “securing, for limited times, to authors, and inventors, and the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries”. Samuels identifies six categories of the public domain, which have all supported the expansion of copyright. Samuels writes that, “In all six areas, the public domain advocates were making arguments against the tide; they lamented the expansion of copyright but could hardly claim that the public domain analysis had in fact already worked its way into dominant copyright theory”. Samuels notes that protectionists of the act try and justify the copyright law based upon natural rights, moral rights and property rights, all of which public domain advocates argue in objection to heavily, however, Samuels argues that the natural rights and property rights are “firmly rooted in copyright history” and that it is recognized as the basis for copyright protection in civil law and outer countries outside of England and the US. Samuels goes on in his article to discuss the Eldred case and argues for the support of the case. He notes that the D.C Circuit Court concluded, “Copyrights are categorically immune from challenges under the First Amendment”. The petitioners of copyright extension argue that the premise of CTEA violated the “limited Times” provision of the Copyright Clause and that Congress can only grant rights in the case that it will promote the creation of new works. They argue that the extension act of 1998 is unconstitutional, but Samuels then asks if that is unconstitutional, are all other proceeding acts unconstitutional as well and therefore have no stopping point. Therefore, Samuels argues, the Supreme Court should not endorse any approach the petitioners present.
This article is important to my topic because it discusses the rationale behind opposing or supporting the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, the premise of my paper. Samuels outlines the arguments that advocates of the public domain may make including that of the restriction of creativity and he then argues why the advocates arguments do not hold and why the act should be upheld, an act that protects Mickey Mouse.
By Elsa McLaren and agencies
Drivers of the most polluting vehicles will be charged £25 to enter London's congestion charge zone under plans announced today by Ken Livingstone.
The London Mayor said he wants to introduce an emissions-based congestion charge fee in an attempt to reduce pollution in the capital that will hit the pockets of drivers of the most heavily-polluting vehicles.
Vehicles in the excise duty Band G with carbon-dioxide emission above 225g per km, would pay the top charge, while drivers of the least polluting cars, like the G-Wiz, would be charged nothing under the proposals.